The Paraglider - The online paragliding beginner courses
The Paraglider - The online paragliding beginner courses

training paragliding : One-Side Collapse or Asymmetric Front Deflation

دوشنبه 17 آذر 1393

نویسنده: parapink5 learning training paragliding |

 One-Side Collapse or Asymmetric Front Deflation

The collapse of one side of our wing is a common problem when we fly in thermals. Most collapses can be avoided provided the pilot is careful in his actions. Strictly speakingwhen you have a collapse you have made a mistake just previously. 
In flight an asymmetric collapse occurs when we are flying with too little brakes or when we are entering or exiting a thermal with strong associated turbulence. This is a common occurrence and can be progressively from small-scale to large-scale maneuvers.

This way is only for test pilots

How to do it

Hold the left brake and apply normal pressure on the wing. Keep the right brake handle in your hand, reach up and pull down on two lines from the A riser with the right hand until a part of the right side folds under. The wing will want to turn right, as this side will be creating more drag. To prevent this right turn, apply a little more left brake and shift your weight to the left.
Caution: Do not let the glider turn and do not apply too much left brake which can stall that side use weight shift steering.
In flight, some advanced wings would behave better if the pilot let them turn and then try to recover.


To reinflate the collapsed side, let up on the lines and pull down the right brake with one controlled movement. Tentative "pumping" is not really effective for making a normal recovery. Some paragliders can recover without pilot input.
For a bigger collapse, pull down the right riser. The wing will tend to turn since the part of the wing which remains inflated bears all the pilot's weight. To deal with this, pull down on the left brake and shift your weight left to prevent turning too much, release the riser and then pull down on the right brake. Let the wing turn a little towards the deflated side and this will enable faster recovery. Do not apply too much opposite brake because this can cause deflation of the open side. Remember to handle your wing with smooth and controlled movements, which are the result of practice.


• Tangling of the folded side with lines is possible, especially when there are only a few of them. If you cannot disentangle it, fold the other side and head for landing.
• If you do not brake the speed of the inflated side, you may enter a spin. Inversely, if you brake too much you will enter a stall.
• The right technique is acquired with experience. A general rule is composed and confident movement. There is no need to be afraid, but be aware that asymmetric folds involve altitude loss.

Front Collapse

This collapse is caused by turbulence and can be a result of a one side collapse. Also a front collapse can produce a one side collapse. In flight, the wake turbulence from other paragliders flying near can produce a front collapse.

Strictly speakin

How to do it

A pilot can cause a front collapse by pulling down the A risers. It is safe for the brake handles to fall down around your wrists if this feels more comfortable than when they are in their normal position. Of course, the maneuver should be carried out gradually by tugging slightly on the A risers, noting the resistance and gradually increasing the pull. The wing will fold at the front and lose its shape due to stall, and a forward horseshoe will probably be produced. Altitude will be lost after a pitch oscillation of the wing.


To recover normal flight, pull on both brakes symmetrically. Some times the front collapse is not symmetrical and the one side might require less or more braking.


• Pilots using trims should be extra careful. Due to the oscillation caused when recovery is made, the trim may open automatically. One sided or asymmetrical trim opening can occur during other maneuvers as well. My opinion is that trims should have some Velcro security system.
• In areas of turbulence, apply brakes actively to prevent a collapse and to feel the wing better. In a state of repeated collapses, do not rush to correct or the wing will fold again.


This is a symmetrical collapse of the central front part of the paraglider. The center stops flying due to deflation and the sides meet in the center of the wing.


How to do it

While holding the brakes, grasp the one inboard line from each A riser and pull them down slowly to your chest. This may not be enough so you may have to pull the lines a little more. Make sure you pull down symmetrically. Both sides of the wing will maintain a forward direction while the center will slow down, so there will be a central collapse. Loss of altitude (5 to 7 m/s or 1000 to 1400 FPM descent rate) will occur so keep a safe distance from the ground. Several designs of paraglider will not perform or resist to perform this maneuver.



Gradual letting up on the risers and applying the brakes slightly produces recovery. Be gentle to protect your wing from wear and tear when recovering.      


training paragliding : Maneuvers and Tests

دوشنبه 17 آذر 1393

نویسنده: parapink5 learning training paragliding |

Maneuvers and Tests

These tests, also called S.I.V. (Simulation d' Incident en Vol in French, meaning Flight Incident Simulation), are control maneuvers when flying, particular situations will occur which we need to be dealt with. These circumstances do not normally concern novices because students should fly in mild conditions.
The following exercises are described with a pilot's instruction syllabus in mind. We will also be outlining acrobatics which are not included in S.I.V tests.
Needless to say, all tests do not present identical degrees of difficulty. Always use supervision, especially the first time you attempt them. The instructor will advise you to have altitudeconsult the manual of your canopy and take things in stride.
Dynamic full stall should be avoided by all but the most accomplished pilots. All tests should be performed over water while having necessary arrangements,such as a rescue boat, a lifevest etc. However, it is essential for everyone to be able to perform a tip fold (big ears), a one-side collapse and later a B line stall.

Maneuvers and Tests
Extreme maneuvers by the King. [Nova archive]


• Wear gloves at all times. Otherwise the risers may burn your hands through friction.
• All maneuvers alter the aerodynamic shape of the paraglider and it is unsafe to use them when there is no need from safety point of view.
• Always bear in mind that control maneuvers will impair equipment (stretch lines and canopy) and should not be overused.

Here are the maneuvers we consider:

1. Tip fold-big ears 
2. One side collapse or asymmetric front deflation 
3. Front collapse or symmetric tuck 
4. Horseshoe 
5. B-line stall 
6. Parachutal stall or deep stall 
7. Spiral dive 
8. Wingover 
9. Spin 
10. Full stall

Tip Fold or Big Ears

This is the most common and safest maneuver. The total surface of the paraglider after applying big ears is smaller and thus takes more load. The pilot performs big ears in order to lose height and make the wing more stable in turbulent conditions.

How to do it

Keep your hands in the brake toggles, reach up and grasp the outboard lines of riser A. The manufacturer determines the number of lines which are safe to use for big ears. Usually in a set of 5 lines grasp 2 on each side. That is, less than half the number of lines of the A riser on each side. Grasp high to avoid pulling down the whole of A line. Then pull down these lines slowly and symmetrically. Check wing constantly. The outward tips should partially fold under.

Maneuvers and Tests
Tip fold - Small ears :)

What will happen? Not much. Your variometer will merely indicate a greater sink rate. Release the lines and pull gently on the brakes to eliminate big ears. Try again to pull down the said lines more dynamically for a larger tipfold. If you do it correctly you will get a descent rate of 5 to 6 m/s (1000 to 1200 FPM). The next stage involves guiding the paraglider by shifting your weight, as you cannot use your hands to turn with the use of the brakes.


Letting up the lines symmetrically allows you to recover. It is a good idea to apply the brakes to make the wing recover, but remember every wing performs differently. Practice with a safe margin of height.


• The wing obtains greater stability and solidity.
• The sink rate increases and often the horizontal speed falls, except for a few wing models.
• Performing "big ears" is the easiest way to loose altitude while your speed is not altered much. This is usefull to escape a cloudsuck.
• Avoid using "big ears" with modern paragliders during landing due to the tendancy to deepstall. With "big ears" your wing is not flying with the designed shape even though it is a fairly benign event.     


training paragliding : air traffic protocol

دوشنبه 17 آذر 1393

نویسنده: parapink5 learning training paragliding |

Right of Way Rules

Regulations concerning air traffic protocol:

1. When two pilots meet head-on away from the ridge, both turn right.

Right of Way Rules
2. When meeting at an angle a pilot has to give right of way to whoever is on the right


3. Near the ridge, right of way is given to the pilot whose right-hand side is nearest the ridge.


Right of Way Rules

4. Overtaking should be executed at a safe distance of at least 2 wingspans and the overtaking pilot should pass between the ridge and the pilot he is overtaking.
On landing, priority is given to the pilot who is closer to the ground. However, the lower pilot should not linger during landing setup, but quickly land to clear the way.


6. The pilot who enters a thermal first determines the circling direction. The second pilot to enter, whether lower or higher, should circle in the same direction.
In the same thermal the pilot lower down has priority and the one higher up should clear the thermal if they come too close together, since the pilot lower down is unaware of the other pilot's presence or position.
Tandems always have right of way over solo paragliders, except if they are higher up in a thermal.
9. Flying within a cloud is strictly inadvisable. This practice is forbidden in most countries because it is dangerous.
Free-flight configurations always have right of way over paramotors, powerchutes and ultralights, but should yield way to other aircraft.
11. Paragliders should comply with national (federal) regulations. In most countries, among other important items, it is strictly forbidden to fly near airports or aerodromes within a radius of 8 km (5 miles) and a height of 750 m (2500 ft). You are obliged to follow air traffic rules.


Do not fly too close to another paraglider, nor should you follow close behind. Every pilot must take care to avoid collisions with other pilots. Such rules are intended to organize flying with the ultimate goal of safety. These rules are a guide and may change in some parts or differ in your country.     


training paragliding : PARA PRO, STAGE 5

دوشنبه 17 آذر 1393

نویسنده: parapink5 learning training paragliding |


Ground control helps to improve handling


Cross Country flying is to use rising air currents (soaring) to fly away from (and maybe return to) the local flying site.

The objective of this stage is to enable the pilot to fly cross country safely, also under pressure as in demonstrations, displays and competitions.
This stage has nearly unlimited possibilities, from short and easy flights, to really demanding long distance flights, where if the conditions permit, the pilot's ability, as well as his/her determination, will set the limits. It is here that the pilot's ability, that is his knowledge, skill, experience and airmanship, is put to the ultimate test.
One must be able to plan, administer and perform each flight within safe limitations, while one must stress oneself and the equipment to the same limitations to be able to go really far. One must have a thorough knowledge of aerodynamics and meteorology as well as air traffic rules and the airspace. In accordance with the planned flight, and existing and possible conditions, one must choose correct equipment like clothes, aids and emergency equipment, as well as organizing necessary transport and pick up, radio communications and procedures for use in an emergency situation such as landing and getting injured in deserted and difficult terrain.
Cross country flying requires the ability to find all types of lift, as well as correct maneuvering in lift and sink areas. One must be able to judge the terrain and conditions so as not to land where it is prohibited, or where one may add injuries to oneself or others, or in areas that are remote. One must be able to very quickly pick out the best landing fields if one has to go down, and if necessary set up a precision approach to a small landing field with a short field landing over possible barriers. This is because any accident may have the most serious consequences.
Warning must be given against cross country flying into remote and deserted areas, over areas with no possibilities for emergency landings and over water. One must always make sure that someone knows where one intends to fly, and that a search is activated if found necessary. If there is any possibility for a landing in remote and deserted areas one should bring an emergency pack according to the conditions. One should also avoid flying alone.
Students are under no circumstance allowed to fly cross country.
Pilots must have a license for this stage in order to fly cross country in displays, demonstrations or competitions or anywhere else this stage is required.


1. Planning:
Collecting information on weather, terrain, sites, airspace, air traffic and hazards. Use of map and other publications, air traffic and weather service.
2. Weather service: Where and how to get weather information.
3. Interpreting weather reports: Meteorological reports and maps.
4. Interpreting weather: Signs, recognition of acceptable and dangerous conditions.
5. Airspace and air traffic:
a. Controlled airspace: Air corridors, terminal areas, control zones and airports.
b. Uncontrolled airspace: Air transport and other airfields. Danger, restricted, prohibited and alert areas.
c. Military traffic: Training areas, graphing from the air.
d. Governmental publications: Sectional charts, Notam, ICAO maps.
6. Use of maps:
a. Planning of flights: Dangerous/ deserted areas, alternative routes, landing areas, communication and retrieval.
7. Equipment: For altitude and low temperatures, emergency and first aid equipment, survival equipment, warning and communication equipment.
8. Selection of paraglider model: Appropriate model rating for cross-country pilots: Standard rating or Performance rating. For advanced cross-country pilots willing to possibly compromise handling or safety standards for additional performance: Competition rating.
9. Standard procedures: Signals, retrieval.
10. Emergency procedures: Warning, search after missing pilots.


1. Review: Maneuvers from previous stages mastered.
2. Planning: Evaluations and decisions, giving a flight plan.
3. Soaring: Search for and use of all kinds of lift. Flying in lift and sink, head and tail wind with correct speed.
4. Cliff-launch in light to moderate wind. To be avoided due to risk of collapses.
5. Cliff-launch in strong wind: Not to be attempted in a paraglider, only in a hang glider, and then only with assistance.
6. Crosswind-launch: Wind maximum 45 degrees off launch direction. Crosswind component less than 2 m/s, 7 km/h, 5 mph.
7. Outlandings: Precision approach to unknown landing area: Selection of landing field, control of speed and glide angle.


Same as for stage 4, plus.
1. A total of 20 flying hours.
2. A total of 5 cross country flights in various lift (ridge soaring and flying along the same ridge, only, is not approved).


The pilot should be able to take care of his own and others’ safety during cross country flying, also during displays, demonstrations and competitions and anywhere else this stage in required.


Suggested visual markings for the PARA PRO system:
The students/pilots should have visual markings that shows the stage they are at. The following are suggested:
A HELMET BADGE, with color trim, matching the color of the stage.


training paragliding :PARA PRO, STAGE 4 ADVANCED SOARING

دوشنبه 17 آذر 1393

نویسنده: parapink5 learning training paragliding |



Hands off the brakes during ground control.

Advanced soaring is flying in demanding lift, such as marginal, strong and/or turbulent thermal or wave conditions. 

The objective of this stage is to make sure the pilot can safely practice advanced soaring, also under pressure as in displays, demonstrations and competitions.
This stage has turbulence and small margins as key words. One must be prepared to be forced to operate close to the safe operating limitations for the both the equipment and oneself. Even while one certainly should give both equipment and oneself good safety margins, one must be prepared for the possibility that those margins may be passed. A thorough knowledge of emergency procedures, such as recovery from asymmetric and symmetric collapses, stalls, spins, spirals, and surges, as well as use of parachute, is very important. One must have a thorough knowledge of performance curves and correct flying speeds (speed polars), use of accelerator (speed system), design limitations and load factors.
Advanced soaring requires the ability of fast and accurate evaluations of conditions and situations combined with fast and precise maneuvering. There will be situations with little time for balanced decisions and wrong reactions. One must be prepared by careful planning and one always must be ahead of the situation, so that in critical situations one gives the right reaction without wasting time. One must have highly developed skills and a thorough knowledge in order to gain maximum performance. One must, often close to the terrain and in turbulent conditions, master all types of turns combined with low speeds, and also keep a close watch of terrain and other traffic.
Extreme conditions are warned against, because of the strong forces that may be present. Regardless of pilot skill and experience one may easily lose control. Structural (equipment) failures can also happen. One must never overestimate oneself or the equipment. If one meets strong turbulence, one must not panic and try to avoid it by sharp turns or high speeds, since this increases the possibilities for loss of control (or major collapses). Correct maneuvering in strong turbulence is moderate speeds and flight straight ahead or shallow banks if necessary.
Other dangers are stalling or frontal collapse, and loss of control close to the terrain. If this happens, the correct reactions are vital. That is, in case of a stall first reduce the angle of attack by raising one’s arms, control the ensuing surge of the canopy, then wait for speed to maneuver and then avoid collision. In case of a frontal collapse, this is to increase angle of attack and if necessary counter any tendency to turns and then avoid collision. One should also avoid flying alone.
Students are under no circumstance allowed to practice advanced soaring.
Pilots must have a license for this stage in order to fly advanced soaring in displays, demonstrations or competitions or else where this stage is required.
Before progressing to the next stage one must be able to, with a great deal of accuracy, evaluate conditions to be acceptable in relation to safety. One should also show that one is able to find and use all kinds of lift.


Repetition from stage 3, especially
a. Relative to maneuvering and speed in turbulence, turns and pulling out of spiral dives.
b. Correct maneuvering speeds in turbulence. Stability. Speed polars.

1. Thermals:
a. When, how and where. Stability versus instability in the air. Lapse rate.
b. Best thermal areas. Time of day and of year.
c. Types of thermals, dangerous thermal conditions, dry thermals.
d. Signs: Clouds, cumulus, cumulonimbus. Squall lines.
2. Wave conditions: waves, turbulence, high altitudes.
3. Dangerous conditions: Strong wind. Clouds, cumulonimbus, severe turbulence.

Paraglider and equipment:
1. Structural limitations: loads, speeds, attitudes, aerobatics. Structural failures.
2. Stability: profile, wing torsion, pendulum stability, recovery after stalls or major collapses.
3. Selection of paraglider: Appropriate model rating for advanced soaring pilots: Standard rating, or Performance rating (but not Competition rating).


1. Stage 3 maneuvers, mastered, reviewed if necessary.
2. Planning: The process of flying, giving a flight plan.
3. 360? turns, shallow to medium bank, left and right.
4. 360? turns, steep, left and right.
5. 360? turns, at minimum sink "flat", left and right.
6. Ridge soaring: Launching and soaring.
7. Thermal soaring: Launching, locating, entering and climbing.
8. Marginal lift: Launching and soaring.
9. Gusts and turbulence: Launching and soaring.
10. Maneuvering according to the traffic rules.


1. Same as for stage 3, easy soaring, plus:
2. A total of minimum 10 flying hours.
3. A total of minimum 2 hours of thermal soaring.
4. A total of minimum 2 hours of ridge soaring.


The pilot should be considered to be able to take care of his/her own and others’ safety while flying at this stage, also during displays, demonstrations and competitions and anywhere else this stage in required.


training paragliding : PARA PRO, STAGE 3

دوشنبه 17 آذر 1393

نویسنده: parapink5 learning training paragliding |



Soaring near the slope

Basic soaring is soaring in easy ridge or thermal conditions, without gusts or turbulence, well clear of the terrain, obstacles and other traffic.


The objectives of this stage are to introduce the student to soaring flight and to make him able to practice and enjoy soaring within safe limitations. He should also be qualified to become a pilot, with the ability to operate alone within safe limitations and to take the responsibility for his further progression.
Soaring has many stages in itself, with increasing difficulty, from easy conditions and maneuvers with a large safety margin, to marginal or extreme conditions with minimal margins. When a pilot "masters the art", it seems quite simple and in a sense it is. This, however, should not mislead anyone into believing that it is easily mastered. Lack of knowledge, misjudgment, wrong maneuvering, ignorance or gambling may easily end up in a serious accident.
One will in this stage get more time to practice in the air and the flying can get automated. There is however less room for mistakes and errors. Therefore careful planned progression is very important. Exercises should in the beginning be simple and with large margins. Soaring requires careful preparation, good planning and ability to do precise and fast maneuvering. Especially important is good launch technique and control in the lower part of the speed range. One must be able to fly coordinated turns with a minimum loss of altitude, often in marginal conditions close to the ridge while calculating drift and keeping constant lookout for other traffic and maneuvering according to traffic rules. One must also be able to recognize all kinds of collapses and to execute prompt and correct recovery at the first signs, with a minimum loss of height and control.
To become a pilot: One should now also be free to develop further, and one has still a lot to learn in order to be able to use the possibilities there is. One will be given possibilities that will demand very good "airmanship" including self discipline and carefulness. It can often be necessary not to fly or to fly with large margins. The point is that one must show that one is able to take responsibility and that one knows where one’s own as well as others’ limits are, and when further instruction is necessary.
An instructor will no longer be responsible. This puts large demands on one’s personality.
Warning must be given against too fast a progression, overconfidence, inattention, ignorance, gambling, misjudgment and lack of skills. One will operate in stronger winds with smaller margins than on previous stages. Even before takeoff accidents can happen. Poor takeoff techniques, lack of control and correction of paraglider while running, or takeoff without a "perfect" paraglider can have serious consequences. One should have qualified assistance when launching in strong or gusty winds. Further one should be very careful with the conditions, which can change suddenly. Strong wind and turbulence may easily lead one to the lee side, or to drift in over dangerous/ unknown terrain. One should also avoid flying alone.
Warning must also be given against the so called "intermediate syndrome" or "Icarus syndrome", meaning that it is easy to believe that one now knows and masters everything, and that neither oneself or the equipment has limitations. It is well known that Icarus was the first who killed himself because of this attitude.
The student (before stage 3 is attained) should only fly: with instructor present, in easy smooth conditions with a wide lift band or in smooth thermal conditions. This will allow him to maneuver with a good margin to other traffic and the terrain. He should be careful not to turn before he is established in flying position with good control of airspeed and direction. He should not try to return to a lift band he has flown out of. Ridge soaring in marginal lift, in strong wind (above 7 m/s, 25 km/h, 15 mph), in turbulence, cliff launches, crosswind launches, top landings or landings into the hill (hillside landings) are also not allowed.
After all rating requirements have been met one can fly freely within the safety limitations, as long as a higher stage is not required by other rules or regulation. One will have the responsibility to seek further instruction when necessary. It is recommended in the beginning to use the rules for students (see above) as a guidance for safe flying.
Only experienced pilots should fly at advanced sites close to the ridge, in marginal, strong or turbulent conditions or in "heavy traffic".
Before progressing to higher stages, the pilot should have a variety of experience from different sites and conditions. The process of flying should be automated, so that reactions are fast and correct in the different situations/exercises one has to master. It is recommended to fly a minimum of 10 hours and 20 flights.


1. Repetition of stage 2 theory.
2. Stalls and collapses : In takeoff, in gusts and turbulence. In lift gradients. Turning in lift gradients. In wind gradient. Turning in wind gradient (downwind). Secondary stalls.
3. Speed polars : Performance. Evaluation of glide angle and minimum sink with corresponding airspeeds: In head and tail wind, in lift and sink. With regards to wing loading, air density, turns.
4. Wind effects  :Wind-drift and crabbing, drift and corrections in turns. Head or tail wind, penetration.
5. Wing tip vortices : Behind other gliders, airplanes, helicopters.


1. Repetition of stage 2 theory.
2. The wind force: Increases proportionally with the square of the wind velocity increase. Effects and dangers. On the ground, at takeoff, in the air, at the landing.
3. Ridge lift:
a. Factors
: Shape and gradient of slope, wind direction and velocity.
b. Components: Horizontal and vertical, gradients, acceleration, strongest lift, strongest head wind.
c. Dangerous conditions and areas: Lee-side, turbulence, rotors, strong gradients and winds. Winds that increase quickly in speed.
d. Safe and good conditions: Up and in front of the ridge.
4. Waves:
a. Factors: Terrain, wind direction and velocity.
b. Signs: High winds, lenticular clouds, rotor clouds.
c. Dangers: Rotors, penetration, strong lift, high altitudes, hypoxia, cold.
5. Thermals:
a. Factors: Instability, lapse rates, terrain, sunshine and heating.
b. Signs: Large temperature drop with altitude, wind shifts, lulls and gusts, cumulus clouds.
c. Dangers: Gusts and turbulence, strong lift gradients, pitch ups and downs.
d. Safe and good conditions: Large thermals, smooth and moderate gradient, light to medium winds.
6. Frontal lift: Cold front description.
a. Factors: Air masses, from high to low pressures, instability.
b. Signs: Cumulus clouds, moving clouds, squall lines, wind-shift, temperature rise/fall.
c. Dangers: High winds, wind shifts and gusts, strong lift, turbulence.
7. Clouds: Cumulus, cumulonimbus, cap clouds, rotor clouds, stratus clouds, lenticular clouds.
8. Weather reports: Current meteorological forecasts and maps. Where to obtain, interpretations.
9. Weather signs: Reading the weather on the ground and in the air:
a. Measuring: Of the wind, pressure and stability.
b. Clouds: Associated weather and conditions.
c. Wind: Reading the wind, wind indicators.

Paragliders and equipment: 

1. Repetition of stage 2 theory.
2. Design Factors: Airworthiness, performance, handling.
3. Maintenance: Daily and periodical inspections and care, repairs.
4. Tuning: For maximum performance in the prevailing conditions.
5. Instruments: Variometers, altimeters, airspeed indicators.
6. Clothes and equipment: For endurance, high altitude and cold.
7. Selection of paraglider: Appropriate model rating for pilots at this level: Standard rating (not Performance or Competition rating).

1. Repetition of stage 2 theory.
2. Pilot in command: Airmanship, traits, abilities, responsibilities, command and control. Mastering the nature and process of flying.
3. Physical factors: Vertigo, hypoxia, cold, exhaustion.

Rules and regulations: 
1. Repetition of stage 2 theory.
2. The airspace and other traffic in the air:
a. Controlled airspace and airports: Control zones, terminal areas, airways, ATC, VFR/IFR traffic patterns, rules of operation, VFR rules for minimum visibility and distances from clouds.
b. Uncontrolled airspace and airports: Information zones and services, VFR/IFR traffic patterns, rules of operation, VFR rules for minimum visibility and distances from clouds.
c. Other airspace: Restricted, dangerous and prohibited areas.
3. Information sources: ICAO maps, publications, manuals, NOTAMs. Where to obtain. Air Traffic Control, information service, local airports and clubs, schools.
4. Right of way rules for paragliders and hang gliders: General, ridge soaring, thermal soaring.
5. Other rules and regulations, as applicable: Government, National Paragliding Association.
6. Code of good practice.

Practical flying and safety: 
1. Repetition of stage 2 theory.
2. Instructional and safety recommendations.
3. Preparations: Standard routines and checks, double checks of critical factors.
4. Flying exercises: The Practical skill requirements: Description, intention, procedures, execution, errors and dangers.
5. Critical, dangerous and emergency situations: Their causes, avoidance, recognition, corrections. Applicable training methods (simulations).

a. Ground handling in gusts and high winds. Practice of reverse inflation, use of crossed-hands control or not. The turn from reverse to forward position, when and how. Deflation of paraglider when necessary, avoidance of being dragged.
b. Poor takeoff techniques: Wrong use of or wrong commands to assistants. Poor control off the paraglider. Poor airspeed and directional control, collapses, loss of control, turning back to ridge. Getting into harness.
c. Stalls: In gusts, turbulence, in lift gradient, close to the terrain, in turn.
d. Conditions: Marginal lift, strong winds, gusts, turbulence, rotors.
e. Unusual situations: Turbulence, aerobatics, flying close to clouds.
f. Critical maneuvers: 360? turns, returning to lift band, flying close to the terrain, top landings, hillside landings, stalling in turns. Stopping a negative spin. Recovery from major collapses "symmetrical or asymmetrical", B-line stalls. Stopping a spiral dive.
g. Unfamiliarity: With sites, conditions, paraglider or harness, maneuvers or tasks.
h. Physical and Physiological factors: Stress, pressure, exhaustion, fear, drugs and alcohol.
i. Poor airmanship: Overestimating own ability, and/or underestimating sites and conditions.
j. Vertigo: Flying with reduced visibility.
k. Combinations: Of two or more of the above multiplies the risk of accidents.
l. Emergency maneuvers: Use of parachutes. Landings in water, trees, rough terrain, obstructed areas, electrical wires.
m. Accidents: Assistance and reports.
First Aid:
Repetition of stage 2 theory.


1. Review: Stage 2 maneuvers mastered.
2. Planning: The process of flying, giving a flight plan.
3. Preparations: Spreading out, attachment of harness, adjustments, preflight checks.
4. Ground handling: Control, assistance, correct procedures.
5. Takeoffs in wind: With assistance, procedures, instructions, Start position. Final checks. Speed and direction. Flying position.
6. Minimum sink maneuvers: Speed control, coordinated turns left and right, minimum loss of height, without any sign of stall.
7. Wind corrections exercises/ Maneuvering in lift bands: Figure 8 maneuvering, corrections for wind drift, turns and reversing direction. Maneuvering according to terrain and other traffic, keeping a good lookout.
8. 360 degree turns: Ordinary speed and on minimum sink, right and left, shallow to medium bank, without any sign of stalls. "Safe height and distance to terrain."
9. Stalling: From minimum sink speed and flight straight ahead. "Safe altitude and distance." To be attempted for first time only with instructor, with radio communications, with reserve parachute present, and over water. B-line stalls: force required to enter, avoidance of parachutal stall during recovery by quick let-up of risers.
10. Frontal collapses: 2-3 cells on one side and on both sides. "Safe altitude and distance." Progression from pulling on 1 A-line to 2, 3, 4. Use of counter-steering with weight shift. Pumping out folds.
11. Soaring: Entering, turning and maneuvering in lift, corrections and gradient, without any signs of stalls.
Precision approaches and landings: Safe and inside an area decided by the instructor.



1. A minimum of 60 successful flights and a total of 5 flying hours.
2. Flights from 5 different sites, of which 3 are inland.
3. Minimum 3 flights and a total of 1 hour of flying in lift.


The instructor should be convinced that the student is able to take care of his own and others' safety within applicable rules and regulations, recommendations and code of good practice, while operating alone.     


training paragliding :PARA PRO, STAGE 1-2

دوشنبه 17 آذر 1393

نویسنده: parapink5 learning training paragliding |





Low flights is gliding near the ground over smooth terrain, normally not above 5 meters. Altitude gliding is gliding with enough height and distance from the terrain to be able to maneuver relatively freely.


The objectives of this stage are to introduce the student to paragliding by a progression through first low flights (the first stage) and then altitude gliding (the second stage) and make him able to practice and enjoy this within safe limitations, as well as to prepare him for the next stage. 
This stage is probably the most important in the whole progression of the student, since it is here the basis for good "or bad" habits is founded. One shall in safe closeness to the ground, fly easy equipment, in easy hills and conditions, to gain confidence in flying, the equipment and also oneself and practice and learn the basic skills. 
The student shall then gradually become accustomed to flying well clear off the ground, and lose possible height anxiety (allow for individual progression). One must now plan and prepare for each flight and one finds that one is actually safer with altitude that gives time and space to maneuver and correct for possible mistakes. 
One learns and practices the basic maneuvers, such as speed control including slow flying, coordinated turns, and combinations of those, correction for wind drift and precision approaches and landings. The latter proves that one has mastered the other maneuvers with sufficient planning and precision. The key word is planning that starts even before takeoff and continues all the time. One must be ahead of the events, observe, evaluate, decide and act accordingly. This "process of flying" is vital in all aviation, also at the higher stages. 
Warning must be given against attempts to take off in cross-, down-, gusty or strong winds and to fly in unstable or turbulent conditions or in lift.
At the beginner hill, one should not practice slow flight and stalls (except for landings) or more than gentle turns with only small diversions form the flight path. 
In the intermediate hill, poor planning, preparations and takeoff techniques may have the most serious consequences. All maneuvers should be done into the wind to avoid drifting into the hill or too far off and hence not be able to reach the landing area. Advanced maneuvers, like 360° turns, pylon flying and slow flying should be performed with extra caution and sufficient height and distance to the terrain to allow for corrections or recovery if control is lost. Turns, downwind flying and airspeed below speed for best glide angle close to the ground should be avoided. Approach should be planned in good time, and started with good height. 
After all rating requirements have been met: The student should, when flying without the direct supervision of an instructor only fly in beginner or intermediate hills with light to medium (0-3 m/s, 0-15 km/h, 0-10 mph), smooth winds. Takeoffs should only be done in approximately headwind. Lift or turbulence should be avoided, or if this is not possible, flown straight through (away from the hill) to calmer conditions in order to land in the ordinary landing area. One should also avoid flying alone. 
A beginner hill is a hill with smooth terrain, preferable snow, sand, grass or gravel, with a profile that allow for low flights with the type of paraglider in use. The takeoff and landing areas and the area between should be free of obstacles and other hazards with a good margin to either side. It should be possible to do the whole flight in close to a straight line. 
An intermediate hill is a hill where takeoff, landing area and the flight path between them is considered to be easy and with good margins to any obstacle or other safety hazards. The takeoff area should be smooth with a profile that allows for acceleration to flying speed before getting airborne (no cliff launch). The landing area should be large and easy to reach by normal maneuvering with a good margin of height. There should be established two-way communication between takeoff and landing if the landing area cannot be seen from takeoff. 
Before progressing to the next stage it is of vital importance that the student knows the theory as well as mastering all practical skills, especially airspeed control in the lower speed range and that he is able to recognize and correct for nearness to stalls. This applies to both straight flight and turns. 
To gain a minimum of experience, the student is recommended to practice a minimum of 4 flying days and 20 flights, after all rating requirements are met.



1. Lift: Difference in pressure created by: profile, airspeed and angle of attack. Low pressure over the wing, high pressure under the wing. Definition of: relative wind, even "laminar" airflow. 
2. Lift factors: airfoils "wing profile", area, aspect ratio, air density, airspeed, angle of attack. Internal pressure in the wing, how influenced by use of brakes. 
3. Resistance/Drag: Parasitic, induced, relation to airspeed and angle of attack. More drag when paraglider is behind the pilot on the ground than when overhead. 
4. The nature of flying: One is always dependent on continuous forward airspeed in order to keep flying, one can not stop or reverse. 
5. Load: Weight, G-force. Forces in turns, lift gradients gusts and turbulence. Opening shocks. 
6. Driving forces: 
a. On the ground: By running. 
b. In the air: The principle of the inclined plane: In flying without engine one is always going down (related to the air around you) because gravity is the driving force. 
7. Airspeed versus Groundspeed. Wind effects: Why to take off and land into the wind. Head or tail wind, wind drift and crabbing, drift and corrections in turns. 
8. Stalls: Description, dangers, recognition, avoidance and recovery. In turns, accelerated, secondary, in wind and lift gradients, downwind, in gusts and turbulence. 
9. Frontal collapses: Both asymmetrical (one wingtip)" and symmetrical (both wingtips or entire leading edge). Description, dangers, recognition, avoidance and recovery. In turns, gusts and turbulence. 
10. Spins, Spirals, Skids and Slips. Negative spins: Description, recognition, avoidance and recovery. 
11. Wing tip vortices: Turbulence behind all aircraft, how to avoid collapses therefrom. Ground effect. 
12. Control movements and principles: Airspeed control and turning. Use of brakes versus weight-shift. 
13. Airspeeds and speed polars: Minimum sink and best glide angle, relation between airspeeds in head-and tail-wind and varied wing loading. 

Micrometeorology (site conditions) and meteorology: 
1. Wind, description and creation: Airflow from high to low pressure. Created by uneven heating of the surface. "Samples: Water flow. The sea breeze". 
2. Wind measurement, wind meters, natural indicators and signs:
a. Velocity: Knots, MPH or m/s. 
b. Directions: Compass and quadrant (head or up, tail or down, crosswind). 
3. The wind force: Increases proportionally with the square of the wind velocity increase. Effects, dangers. 
4. Wind gradient: Effect, dangers, corrections. 
5. Uneven wind/gusts, turbulence and lift: Causes, signs, dangers. 
a. Mechanical turbulence: Behind or lee of obstructions, trees, buildings, hills. 
b. Thermal turbulence: Instability, uneven heating, dangers, recognition. 
c. Wind shifts: Gusts and dangers. 
d. Wind shears: Descriptions, dangers. 
6. Local conditions: Terrain effects, valleys, around obstructions and corners. 
7. Weather: Creation, heat and pressure differences, stability/ instability, circulation, wind systems. 
8. Sea breeze: Creation, effects. 
9. Waves: Rotors. Behind mountains, signs and dangers. 
10. Ridge effects: Descriptions, kinds, gradients, dangers. 
11. Thermals: Description, instability, turbulence, signs. 
12. Clouds: Cumulus, cumulonimbus, rotor clouds, dangers. 
13. Air masses and Fronts: Cold fronts, warm fronts, signs and conditions. 
14. Weather reports and evaluation: 
a. Weather reports: Signs, interpretation. 
b. Reading wind: direction and force, at takeoff and landing, along the flight path, indicators. 
c. Recognition of safe and dangerous conditions. 

1. Construction and Terminology: Materials and parts. 
2. Airworthiness standards and requirements: Design and certification, purpose and need. Design maximum loads, maneuvering limitations, stability, stall characteristics, maneuverability, speed range, pilot weight and rating. 
3. Handling: Control response. Roll, pitch and yaw coupling. Stability, slow flight and stalls, B-lining, takeoff and landing characteristics. Effect of accelerators or speed systems. 
4. Maintenance: Daily and periodical inspection and care, qualified tuning and repairs. 
5. Selection of gliders: Rating and experience, type of flying, performance, handling and weight range. Use and ambitions. Appropriate model rating for students: Standard rating (not Performance or Competition rating). 
6. Selection of harnesses: Types of harnesses, weight-shift or classic, use of cross-bracing. Rating and experience. 
7. Performance: Minimum sink, maximum glide, maximum speed, penetration, turning capacity. 
8. Safety equipment: Helmet, boots, gloves, clothing. Dorsal protection and hip protection. Airbags. 

1. Physical factors: Fitness, strength, exhaustion. Drugs and alcohol. Vertigo, hyperventilation. 
2. Psychological factors: Anxiety and fear of height. Recognition of own ability and limitations versus natural and equipment limitations. Confidence versus overconfidence (The Icarus syndrome). Group and personal pressures and approval, saying no, the walk down. Self discipline. 
3. The learning process and environment: The training system, objectives, description, safety, motivation, individual progress. 
4. Conduct/ Airmanship: 
a. The nature of flying: One is always dependent on continuous forward airspeed in order to keep flying, one can not stop or reverse. 
b. The process of flying: Insight, continuous evaluations, decisions, actions. With regard to the nature of flying, being ahead. 
c. The commando principle: The necessity of completing every started flight. The danger of panic. 

1. Government or other official authorities. 
a. Airspace and Air traffic: Controlled and uncontrolled airspace and airports, VFR/IFR traffic and rules, right of way rules. 
b. Other rules. 
2. National Paragliding Association. 
3. School and training. 
4. Local and sites. 
5. Code of good practice. 
6. Right of way rules. 

1. Instructional and safety recommendations. 
2. Flight planning: The process of flying: Information/observation, evaluation, decisions and execution. Making a flight plan. 
3. Preparations: Standard routines and checks, double checks of critical factors. 
4. Flying exercises: The practical skill requirements: Description, intention, procedures, execution, errors and dangers. 
5. Critical, dangerous and emergency situations: Their causes, avoidance, recognition, corrections. Applicable training methods "simulations". 

a. Poor preparation: Equipment failures and malfunctions. 
b. Ground handling in gusts and strong winds: Loss of control. Being dragged, avoidance, prevention. 
c. Stalls: Level flight, in turns, low, high, in takeoff, in gradient, in gusts, in turbulence, in "unexpected" lift, downwind, downwind turns in gradient. 
d. Poor takeoff techniques: Poor control of paraglider, poor airspeed and directional control. Over-control, turn back to hill. Getting into harness, release of brakes to accomplish same. 
e. Wind conditions: Wind strength, crosswind, gusts and turbulence, unexpected lift, drift into hill, wind gradient. 
f. Crashing/ Emergency landings: Avoidance, preparations. 
g. Takeoffs above 1500m: Air density decreases. True airspeed increases. 
h. Critical maneuvers: Flying close to terrain and obstructions, stalls and slow flight, 360? turns, spins, spiral dives, pylon flying. Takeoff in wind without assistance, particularly near cliffs. 
i. Unfamiliarity: With sites, conditions, paraglider or harness, maneuver or tasks. 
j. Physical and Physiological factors: Stress, pressure, exhaustion, fear, drugs and alcohol. 
k. Poor airmanship: Overestimating own ability and/or underestimating sites, conditions, equipment or task. 
l. Vertigo: Flying with reduced visibility. 
m. Combinations: Of two or more of the above multiplies the risk of accidents. 
n. Emergency maneuver: Use of parachutes, prevention of down-planing of paraglider after parachute deployment. Landings in water, trees, rough terrain, obstructed areas, electrical wires. 
o. Accidents: Assistance and reports. 
First Aid: In accordance with appropriate authority's recommendations.


1. Transport, care and maintenance of paraglider and equipment. Accordion vs. rolled fold up. Proper stowing of lines and risers. 
2. Pre and post flight routines: Laying out, making a horseshoe, "building a wall", adjustments, preflight checks, line and carabiner control, harness control, attachment of cross-bracing and speed system. Packing up. 
3. Takeoff position and final check: Position of risers and toggles. Body and arm position. Final check.: Of carabiners and cross-bracing, conditions, clear area. 
4. Takeoff exercises: The paraglider to flying position: Determined, correct running to get the paraglider up. Checking the paraglider visually. Letting go of front risers. Correcting problems. Continue running, smooth acceleration, no jumping into harness. 
5. Running with paraglider: Controlling position of paraglider and angle of attack and roll, on flat ground and on a slope. 
6. Stalling and stopping a run: On flat ground and on a slope. Correct landing technique. Not flaring too soon. 
7. Flight planning: Evaluating site and conditions. Decisions, giving a flight plan. 
8. Takeoff: Takeoff position. Smooth acceleration and lift off, with correct airspeed and good directional control. 
9. Speed control: Best glide angle speed, no tendency of slow flight or stall. 
10. Directional control: Maintaining heading, smooth course corrections, avoidance of oscillations. 
11. Shallow turns: Coordinated entry and recovery, small diversions from course. 
12. Landings: Directly into wind. 

1. Planning: Insight, evaluation of site and conditions, decisions, giving a flight plan. 
2. Preflight routines: Repetition of Part 1, spreading, adjustment, preflight checks. 
3. Takeoffs: Start position, final check, smooth acceleration, lift off at correct speed, good speed and directional control. 
4. Speed control maneuvers: Best glide angle and minimum sink speed. 
5. Turns: 90?-180?, gentle to medium bank, left and right, coordinated. 
6. Slow flight: Recognition and recovery "at safe altitudes". 
7. Ground reference maneuvers: Figure 8-turns and rectangular patterns, correcting for wind-drift. 
8. Traffic rules: Maneuvering according to other traffic. 
9. Landing patterns: Following planned procedure. Approach with downwind, base and final legs. Figure 8-turns. Control of gradient. 
10. Turning and landing only by the use of the rear risers "simulation of brake-line failure". 
11. Precision approaches and landings: Safe and standing inside an area preset by the instructor. Slow flight and mushing is not allowed.


1. A minimum of 6 flying days. 
2. A minimum of 30 successful flights, of which at least 10 are altitude gliding flights.


The instructor should be convinced that the student is able to take care of his own and others' safety, while flying low or altitude gliding within the instructional and safety recommendations given.


training paragliding Informative Guide to Novices

دوشنبه 17 آذر 1393

نویسنده: parapink5 learning training paragliding |

Informative Guide to Novices

The following training schedule can be adjusted according to each instructor’s system, weather or other unforeseeable circumstances. Paragliding ought to be a team sport so joining a local club is recommended not only for the individual but also for the sport’s development as a whole.
paragliding training

Instructor demostration on inflation and forward launch. Sprinting start with wing overhead without using the brakes and then with brakes. Student practice under instructor’s supervision.
More practice with accurate handling of maneuvers. Instructor demostration on launch abort technique, deflating wing prior to launch and during landing due to gusty conditions. ReverseDay Three: On-site slope
Launch and landing demonstration by the instructor. Dos and don’ts session, short flight practice and 45º turns.
Student guided on first low altitude flight from a hill. Progress onto a higher altitude. Turns of 90º.
Altitude flying with 90º and 180º turns. Description and attempt for small big ears technique. Applying brakes to adjust speed. Instructions with VHF by the instructor.
Higher altitude flying with 360º turns, big ears and handling. Forward launch and turns using shifting of body weight. Demonstration by the instructor of reverse inflation launch.
Theory as well as practice has to be taught along the lines of what this handbook deals with:
1. Equipment
2. Aerodynamics
3. Meteorology
4. Practical flight
5. Problems in flight, and
6. Regulations
It is up to the instructor to determine the syllabus, and up to the students which level they want to reach.

The beginner’s course teaches you how to launch, land, control airspeed and turn, as well as safety and theory. At the secondary level, on-site instruction ought to include soaring, thermaling and maneuvers such as B-stalls, asymmetric collapse, frontal collapse, ground handling in use of reverse inflation launch. Students commonly perfect their technique by doing ground control on their own paragliders. However, you never really stop learning.
Most countries have their own pilot rating standards. One is Student Pilot, Club Pilot, Pilot and Advanced Pilot. Another is Level I to IV of piloting skill. The CIVL (International body governing all hang gliding and paragliding) has an international system which any country can adopt, and more importantly is used as a license to allow pilots to fly in foreign countries. This system is known as Parapro :

FAI/CIVL Parapro and parapink5 Training and Safety System Recommended International Paraglider Standards of Safety & Training

The history of paragliding has been written in a few years, where new barriers have been broken virtually every day. Today it may suffer from a hard case of the "Icarus Syndrome." It has developed into a full-blooded aviation activity, which means that it is no longer simple and easy to learn. It has become complex and potentially more dangerous for the "self-learners", while the opposite may be true for the ones that receive proper training.In the race for more efficient gliders and new developments (high aspect-ratio wings, power, thermal and cross country flying), one seems to forget too often that human nature needs time to learn to perform new tasks in a safe manner. The training methods are very often on the "ground skimming level", while reality calls for cross country and thermal flying.
If one looks at the history of paragliding with respect to the levels of flying that have been reached (limited to foot launched, no power paragliding), we see 5 distinct stages, similar to those involved in flight in hang gliders. However, in paragliding, the lowest two levels are combined, due to the greater ease of takeoff and landing and lower flight speeds in paragliders.
Accidents are most likely to happen when the pilot takes the step up to a higher stage. Each stage is followed by a more complex stage (a building block system) requiring new knowledge and skills. It is a natural "ladder" where a student should climb to progress safely in his paragliding career.We have additional stages like Aerobatic, Experimental and Power, all of which I personally consider unsafe for the general pilots at the present time. They should therefore only be performed by specialists using a strict professional program until safe methods are found to make them available to everyone.In addition to the stage system above, there are also other stages or steps a pilot may take, such as changing to another harness system, or learning to fly a new site or a new paraglider.Each time new stages are pioneered, or are being reached by the "self learning" pilots, there are an increase in accidents. Some of those accidents are unavoidable because of the pioneering nature of it (Lillienthal was the first one), while others could have been avoided simply by proper training.If one analyzes why most accidents caused by "pilot error" happen, one finds that they happen either because the pilot tries to perform a task or meet a condition he/she is not able to master, or he/she simply does something that should not be done.
Today we have all the material necessary to avoid most such accidents, either by the knowledge the paragliding community has collected itself or by the available knowledge through other aviation activities. Either we know how a task should be performed correctly or we know that there are clear limitations that we cannot safely exceed. (One sample of the latter is cloud flying. Any sane motor or paraglider pilot knows that this is dangerous, and it is hence unnecessary for paraglider pilots to rediscover this fact by killing themselves).Today, paragliding, along with other aviation activities, has most of the information needed to progress safely through the flying stages. All that is needed is to put all together in a training system.Let us have a closer look at the model of the stages:
The 5 stages of paragliding:
Accidents are most likely to happen when the pilot takes the step up to a higher stage. A training system should be designed to smooth out these steps with a natural progression to higher pilot ability. We fill in these steps with instruction.
GROUND SKIMMING (combined with stage 2) "Don't fly higher than you would care to fall!" 
ALTITUDE GLIDING (Orange) "Altitude and space to maneuver, no soaring" 
RIDGE SOARING (Green) "Soaring in non turbulent conditions"
THERMAL SOARING (Blue) "Soaring in turbulent conditions." 
1. Knowledge
2. Skill
3. Experience
4. Airmanship
SKILL: Since paragliding is a practical activity, a pilot's ability can best be measured by his skill, which means his way of performing maneuvers, links of maneuvers and tasks, and how he masters flying conditions and new situations. He certainly also must show good AIRMANSHIP but that is not easily measured and difficult to diagram. A good instructor however is able to spot good airmanship often before the pilot is even in the air.KNOWLEDGE and EXPERIENCE are only "tools" used to improve a pilot's SKILL and AIRMANSHIP and hence his ABILITY as a pilot. They are however of good value in the learning process and their value as such can hardly be overestimated. Left alone by themselves they are meaningless in measuring the pilot ABILITY.BASED on the above "facts" or statements, I have developed a training system, built on the 5 STAGES of PARAGLIDING as a natural progression for a pilot. I have also based the system mainly on the development and measurement of the pilot's SKILL, although the other 3 qualities have found their place.For instance, AIRMANSHIP is expressed by the fact that the pilot has either a STUDENT LICENCE, which means that he lacks the necessary AIRMANSHIP to take care of his own and others’ safety, or he has a PILOT LICENCE, showing he has the necessary AIRMANSHIP. In other words, a student pilot is one that is under a training system, controlled by an instructor, and all his flying shall be in accordance with the instructor guidelines. A pilot license shows that the holder is a pilot that is mature enough to take care of his own flying, seeking further instruction when he feels he needs it.
A pilot license does not mean that the holder is someone who does not need more instruction because "he knows it all", but merely that he can take care of himself at the stage he is at. When he wants to progress to a higher stage he seeks instruction, before he goes out on his own flying at that stage.
THE COLOR CODES (or "Black belt in Paragliding"): The stages in the system are color coded for easy identification. The idea is that the pilot (or student) will wear visible markings that identify him as a Student or a Pilot, as well as the stage he is on "signed off by an instructor". Apart from being a good site control system it has its values as a training aid. It is motivating and it gives the students and pilots insight in what they are up to by breaking down the way to the top into easily identifiable stages or blocks that seem attainable by most people.Note: The stages are given colors from yellow to brown. A "black" grade or Master grade may be considered as the top level. This grade should express the ultimate in Airmanship, Skill, Knowledge and Experience.
PARA PRO, general description
The objective of this program is to aid and assist the participants to progress safely in, enjoy the sport of paragliding, and become true airmen.This means that they must be able to enjoy the beauty and freedom of the sport, and not risk injury or restrictions due to their own and others’ lack of will and ability to take care of their safety, enjoyment and freedom.The ability of an airman is based on knowledge, skill, experience, personal qualities and attitudes, which take time to develop to a standard where one is able to operate alone within the objective above.The development of this ability is a matter of education, which is done most efficiently, enjoyably and safely through a planned program which motivates the student and pilots by helping them to reach easily definable and natural stages or goals, which gradually expands the operational freedom without jeopardizing safety.

The program consists of 5 natural stages, based on the development of the sport, and which give an excellent progression after the building block principle of learning. One progresses from the easy to the more difficult, from low to high, from basic to advanced, from simple to complicated, being careful not to leave any gaps on the way.The program also divides the participants into students and pilots which indicated whether they are able to operate alone or not.

1,2. Altitude gliding Orange Student
3. Ridge Soaring Green Pilot
4. Thermal Soaring Blue Pilot
5. Cross Country Brown Pilot
A student pilot is, as the name suggests, under training to become a pilot. He is considered to have limited ability to take care of his own and other people's safety.This means that he has not developed enough ability to evaluate all elements involved with regard to safety and based on this, make safe and sound decisions and act accordingly, without the supervision of an instructor. 
A pilot should be able to take care of his own and other people's safety within applicable rules, regulations and code of good practice. When operating alone a pilot may encounter situations beyond his ability or judgement. This means that he must be able to evaluate all the elements involved with regard to safety, and based on this make safe and sound decisions and act accordingly, on his own, or to obtain further instruction, information and assistance at his own discretion.
Recommended training and safety limitationsStudents should always fly under the supervision of an instructor. Before all the rating requirements are met they should always fly under the direct supervision of an instructor.Students should only fly paragliders and harnesses suitable for students and which on they have been checked out on by the instructor. They should only do tuning and repairs when approved by the instructor.Students should only fly demonstration or competition flying at the stages they are rated for and always under the direct supervision of an instructor.
Pilots are expected to be familiar with and to follow all applicable national aeronautical regulations and local 
flying site rules.
Pilots should not participate in demonstration, competition or other organized flying which requires higher standards than they are rated for.
Minimum age: To fly paraglider: the minimum recommended age is 16 years old, with the written permission of parent or guardian when below 18 years.
Students stage 1, 2 and 3 should be given the necessary lectures, briefings, oral discussions and written tests to ensure that the required knowledge needed to meet the objectives of the applicable stage, is acquired. The listed requirements are a guide to meet those objectives. They should not restrict anybody from giving additional instruction if found necessary. The methods of instruction may vary and are left to the discretion of the organizer/instructor.
Stage 3. Before a student is signed off to become a pilot, he should pass a written test on air law, applicable rules and regulations and code of good practice, to ensure that he has all the necessary knowledge to operate alone, safely and correctly at sites and in the air.Pilots stage 4 and 5, may at their own discretion acquire the required knowledge, either through attendance of lectures, briefings or through oral discussions and group or personal study.Before a student or a pilot is signed off at an applicable stage, the instructor or observer must be convinced that he meets the required standard of knowledge.
Students stage 1,2 & 3, should be given the necessary instruction in each of the practical skills. Before a skill is actually performed, the student should be given a theoretical briefing in the basic theory, the purpose, normal procedures, mistakes, faults and dangers and their corrections, as well as the acceptable safe criteria of performance.
Each skill should be practiced until the instructor is convinced that it is mastered within correct and safe procedures and limitations for the applicable stage. The skills may be signed off progressively as the above criteria is met. A special flight test is hence not necessary.Pilots stage 4 & 5, may at their own discretion, within acceptable safe methods, acquire the necessary instruction for each practical skill. Before the skills are signed off, they should be demonstrated to an instructor or observer, who should be convinced that they are mastered within safe procedures and limitations.
Experience is not, by itself, a measurement of pilot ability. It shall, however, ensure that the knowledge, skills and airmanship have been practiced a minimum number of times in various situations. Exercise, drill and practice are important in the learning process to meet the objective of all true learning which is: to effect behavioral changes.The experience requirements should be documented by a logbook or reliable witnesses. The instructor or observer should be convinced that the minimum requirements are met or he/she must require further proof.
The instructor or observer should be convinced that the student or pilot has the ability to take care of his own and others’ safety at the applicable stage, within applicable rules, regulations, recommended safety limitations and code of good practice.  


Learning to fly

پنجشنبه 13 آذر 1393

نویسنده: parapink5 learning training paragliding |

Most popular paragliding regions have a number of schools, generally registered with and/or organized by national associations. Certification systems vary widely between countries, though around 10 days instruction to basic certification is standard.
Flying above Stubaital, Austria

Tandem Paragliding at Painan, Indonesia
There are several key components to a paragliding pilot certification instruction program. Initial training for beginning pilots usually begins with some amount of ground school to discuss the basics, including elementary theories of flight as well as basic structure and operation of the paraglider.
Students then learn how to control the glider on the ground, practicing take-offs and controlling the wing 'overhead'. Low, gentle hills are next where students get their first short flights, flying at very low altitudes, to get used to the handling of the wing over varied terrain. Special winches can be used to tow the glider to low altitude in areas that have no hills readily available.
As their skills progress, students move on to steeper/higher hills (or higher winch tows), making longer flights, and learning to turn the glider, control the glider's speed, then moving on to 360° turns, spot landings, ‘big ears’ (used to increase the rate of descent for the paraglider), and other more advanced techniques. Training instructions are often provided to the student via radio, particularly during the first flights.
A third key component to a complete paragliding instructional program provides substantial background in the key areas of meteorology, aviation law, and general flight area etiquette.
To give prospective pilots a chance to determine if they would like to proceed with a full pilot training program, most schools offer tandem flights, in which an experienced instructor pilots the paraglider with the prospective pilot as a passenger. Schools often offer pilot's families and friends the opportunity to fly tandem, and sometimes sell tandem pleasure flights at holiday resorts.
Most recognised courses lead to a national licence and an internationally recognised International Pilot Proficiency Information/Identification card. The IPPI specifies five stages of paragliding proficiency, from the entry level ParaPro 1[35] to the most advanced stage 5. Attaining a level of ParaPro 3 typically allows the pilot to fly solo or without instructor supervision.

Paragliding, like any extreme sport, is a potentially dangerous activity. In the United States for example, in 2010 (the last year for which details are available[31]) one paraglider pilot died. This is an equivalent rate of 2 in 10,000 pilots. Over the years 1994 - 2010 an average of 7 in every 10,000 active paraglider pilots has been fatally injured, though with a marked improvement in recent years. In France (with over 25,000 registered fliers), 2 of every 10,000 pilots were fatally injured in 2011 (a rate that is not atypical of the years 2007 - 2011), although around 6 of every 1,000 pilots were seriously injured (more than 2 day hospital stay).[15]
The potential for injury can be significantly reduced by training and risk management. The use of proper equipment such as a wing designed for the pilot's size and skill level,[32] as well as a helmet, reserve parachute,[33] and a cushioned harness[34] also minimize risk. The pilot's safety is influenced by their understanding of the site conditions such as air turbulence (rotors), strong thermals, gusty wind, and ground obstacles such as power lines. Sufficient pilot training in wing control and emergency manoeuvres from competent instructors can minimize accidents. Many paragliding accidents are the result of a combination of pilot error and poor flying conditions.


Wing paragliding

پنجشنبه 13 آذر 1393

نویسنده: parapink5 learning training paragliding |

Cross section of a paraglider
Transverse cross section showing parts of a paraglider:
1) upper surface
2) lower surface
3) rib
4) diagonal rib
5) upper line cascade
6) middle line cascade
7) lower line cascade
8) risers

The paraglider wing or canopy is usually what is known in aeronautical engineering as a "ram-air airfoil". Such wings comprise two layers of fabric which are connected to internal supporting material in such a way as to form a row of cells. By leaving most of the cells open only at the leading edge, incoming air keeps the wing inflated, thus maintaining its shape. When inflated, the wing's cross-section has the typical teardrop aerofoil shape. Modern paraglider wings are made of high-performance non-porous materials such as ripstop polyester[16] or nylon fabric.[note 1]
In some modern paragliders (from the 1990s onwards), especially higher performance wings, some of the cells of the leading edge are closed to form a cleaner aerodynamic profile. Holes in the internal ribs allow a free flow of air from the open cells to these closed cells to inflate them, and also to the wingtips which are also closed.[17]
The pilot is supported underneath the wing by a network of suspension lines. These start with two sets of risers made of short (40 cm) lengths of strong webbing. Each set is attached to the harness by a carabiner, one on each side of the pilot, and each riser of a set is generally attached to lines from only one row of its side of wing. At the end of each riser of the set there is a small delta maillon with a number (2-5) of lines attached forming a fan. These are typically 4–5 metres long, with the end attached to 2-4 further lines of around 2m, which are again joined to a group of smaller, thinner lines. In some cases this is repeated for a fourth cascade.
The top of each line is attached to small fabric loops sewn into the structure of the wing, which are generally arranged in rows running span-wise (i.e., side to side). The row of lines nearest the front are known as the A lines, the next row back the B lines and so on.[18] A typical wing will have A, B, C and D lines, but recently there is a tendency to reduce the rows of lines to three, or even two (and experimentally to one), to reduce drag.
Paraglider lines are usually made from Dyneema/Spectra or Kevlar/Aramid.[18] Although they look rather slender, these materials are immensely strong. For example, a single 0.66mm diameter line (about the thinnest used) can have a breaking strength of 56 kg.[19]
Paraglider wings typically have an area of 20–35 square metres (220–380 sq ft) with a span of 8–12 metres (26–39 ft), and weigh 3–7 kilograms (6.6–15.4 lb). Combined weight of wing, harness, reserve, instruments, helmet, etc. is around 12–22 kilograms (26–49 lb).
The glide ratio of paragliders ranges from 9.3 for recreational wings, to about 11.3 for modern competition models,[20] reaching in some cases up to 13.[21] For comparison, a typical skydiving parachute will achieve about 3:1 glide. A hang glider ranges from 9.5 for recreational wings, to about 16.5 for modern competition models. An idling (gliding) Cessna 152 light aircraft will achieve 9:1. Some sailplanes can achieve a glide ratio of up to 72:1.
The speed range of paragliders is typically 20–75 kilometres per hour (12–47 mph), from stall speed to maximum speed. Beginner wings will be in the lower part of this range, high-performance wings in the upper part of the range. [note 2]
For storage and carrying, the wing is usually folded into a stuffsack (bag), which can then be stowed in a large backpack along with the harness. For pilots who may not want the added weight or fuss of a backpack, some modern harnesses include the ability to turn the harness inside out such that it becomes a backpack.
Paragliders are unique among human-carrying aircraft in being easily portable. The complete equipment packs into a rucksack and can be carried easily on the pilot's back, in a car, or on public transport.[18] In comparison with other air sports this substantially simplifies travel to a suitable takeoff spot, the selection of a landing place and return travel.
Tandem paragliders, designed to carry the pilot and one passenger, are larger but otherwise similar. They usually fly faster with higher trim speeds, are more resistant to collapse, and have a slightly higher sink rate compared to solo paragliders.
A pilot with harness (light blue), performing a reverse launch
The pilot is loosely and comfortably buckled into a harness which offers support in both the standing and sitting positions. Most harnesses have foam or airbag protectors underneath the seat and behind the back to reduce the impact on failed launches or landings. Modern harnesses are designed to be as comfortable as a lounge chair in the sitting position. Many harnesses even have an adjustable 'lumbar support'. A reserve parachute is also typically connected to a paragliding harness.
Most pilots use variometers, radios, and, increasingly, GPS units when flying.

Main article: Variometer
The main purpose of a variometer is in helping a pilot find and stay in the "core" of a thermal to maximise height gain and, conversely, to indicate when a pilot is in sinking air and needs to find rising air. Humans can sense the acceleration when they first hit a thermal, but cannot detect the difference between constant rising air and constant sinking air. Modern variometers are capable of detecting rates of climb or sink of 1 cm per second. A variometer indicates climb-rate (or sink-rate) with short audio signals (beeps, which increase in pitch and tempo during ascent, and a droning sound, which gets deeper as the rate of descent increases) and/or a visual display. It also shows altitude: either above takeoff, above sea level, or (at higher altitudes) "flight level".

Radio communications are used in training, to communicate with other pilots, and to report where and when they intend to land. These radios normally operate on a range of frequencies in different countries—some authorised,[22][23] some illegal but tolerated locally. Some local authorities (e.g. flight clubs) offer periodic automated weather updates on these frequencies. In rare cases, pilots use radios to talk to airport control towers or air traffic controllers. Many pilots carry a cell phone so they can call for pickup should they land away from their intended point of destination.

GPS (global positioning system) is a necessary accessory when flying competitions, where it has to be demonstrated that way-points have been correctly passed. The recorded GPS track of a flight can be used to analyze flying technique or shared with other pilots. GPS is also used to determine drift due to the prevailing wind when flying at altitude, providing position information to allow restricted airspace to be avoided, and identifying one’s location for retrieval teams after landing-out in unfamiliar territory. GPS is integrated with some models of variometer. This is not only more convenient, but also allows for a three dimensional record of the flight. The flight track can be used as proof for record claims, replacing the 'old' method of photo documentation.
Cross section of a paragliderparagliding



پنجشنبه 13 آذر 1393

نویسنده: parapink5 learning training paragliding |

Paragliding is related to the following activities: Hang gliding is a close cousin, and hang-glider and paraglider launches are often found in proximity to one another.[2] Despite the considerable difference in equipment the two activities offer similar pleasures and some pilots are involved in both sports.

Powered paragliding is the flying of paragliders with a small engine attached. Speed riding, or speed flying, is the separate sport of flying paragliders of a reduced size. These wings have increased speed, though they are not normally capable of soaring flight. The sport involves taking off on skis or on foot and swooping rapidly down in close proximity to a slope, even periodically touching it if skis are used. These smaller wings are also sometimes used where wind speeds are too high for a full-sized paraglider, although this is invariably at coastal sites where the wind is laminar and not subject to as much mechanical turbulence as inland sites.

Takeoff from a ramp, Tegelberg, Schwangau, Germany
Tandem Paragliding at Solang Valley, Manali, Himachal Pradesh, India
Paragliding over Jounieh Bay, Lebanon

Paragliding can be of local importance as a commercial activity.[3][4] Paid accompanied tandem flights are available in many mountainous regions, both in the winter and in the summer. In addition there are many schools offering courses,[5] and guides who lead groups of more experienced pilots exploring an area. Finally there are the manufacturers and the associated repair and after sales services. Paraglider-like wings also find other uses, for example in ship propulsion and wind energy exploitation, and are related to some forms of power kite. Kite skiing uses equipment similar to paragliding sails.


In 1952, Domina Jalbert advanced governable gliding parachutes with multi-cells and controls for lateral glide.[6]

In 1954, Walter Neumark predicted (in an article in Flight magazine) a time when a glider pilot would be “able to launch himself by running over the edge of a cliff or down a slope ... whether on a rock-climbing holiday in Skye or ski-ing in the Alps”.[7]

In 1961, the French engineer Pierre Lemoigne produced improved parachute designs which led to the Para-Commander. The ‘PC’ had cutouts at the rear and sides that enabled it to be towed into the air and steered – leading to parasailing/parascending.

American Domina Jalbert invented the Parafoil which had sectioned cells in an aerofoil shape; an open leading edge and a closed trailing edge, inflated by passage through the air – the ram-air design. He filed US Patent 3131894 on January 10, 1963.[8]

Land-based practice: Kiting

About that same time, David Barish was developing the "sail wing" (single-surface wing) for recovery of NASA space capsules – “slope soaring was a way of testing out ... the Sail Wing”.[9] After tests on Hunter Mountain, New York in September 1965, he went on to promote ‘slope soaring’ as a summer activity for ski resorts[10][11]

Author Walter Neumark wrote Operating Procedures for Ascending Parachutes, and he and a group of enthusiasts with a passion for tow-launching ‘PCs’ and ram-air parachutes eventually broke away from the British Parachute Association to form the British Association of Parascending Clubs (BAPC) in 1973. Authors Patrick Gilligan (Canada) and Bertrand Dubuis (Switzerland) wrote the first flight manual "The Paragliding Manual" in 1985, officially coining the word "paragliding."

These developments were combined in June 1978 by three friends Jean-Claude Bétemps, André Bohn and Gérard Bosson from Mieussy Haute-Savoie, France. After inspiration from an article on ‘slope soaring’ in the Parachute Manual magazine by parachutist & publisher Dan Poynter,[11] they calculated that on a suitable slope, a ‘square’ ram-air parachute could be inflated by running down the slope; Bétemps launched from Pointe du Pertuiset, Mieussy, and flew 100 m. Bohn followed him and glided down to the football pitch in the valley 1000 metres below.[12] ‘Parapente’ (pente being French for slope) was born.

From the 1980s equipment has continued to improve and the number of paragliding pilots and established sites has continued to increase. The first (unofficial) Paragliding World Championship was held in Verbier, Switzerland in 1987,[13] though the first officially sanctioned FAI World Championship was held in Kössen, Austria in 1989.[14]

Europe has seen the greatest growth in paragliding, with France alone currently registering over 25,000 active pilots.[15]


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