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The Paraglider - The online paragliding beginner courses - training paragliding :PARA PRO, STAGE 1-2
The Paraglider - The online paragliding beginner courses

training paragliding :PARA PRO, STAGE 1-2

دوشنبه 17 آذر 1393

نویسنده: parapink5 learning training paragliding |

PARA PRO, STAGE 1-2,

paragliding

LOW FLIGHTS & ALTITUDE GLIDING (ORANGE)

www.parapink5.com

Low flights is gliding near the ground over smooth terrain, normally not above 5 meters. Altitude gliding is gliding with enough height and distance from the terrain to be able to maneuver relatively freely.

INSTRUCTIONAL AND SAFETY RECOMMENDATIONS:

The objectives of this stage are to introduce the student to paragliding by a progression through first low flights (the first stage) and then altitude gliding (the second stage) and make him able to practice and enjoy this within safe limitations, as well as to prepare him for the next stage. 
This stage is probably the most important in the whole progression of the student, since it is here the basis for good "or bad" habits is founded. One shall in safe closeness to the ground, fly easy equipment, in easy hills and conditions, to gain confidence in flying, the equipment and also oneself and practice and learn the basic skills. 
The student shall then gradually become accustomed to flying well clear off the ground, and lose possible height anxiety (allow for individual progression). One must now plan and prepare for each flight and one finds that one is actually safer with altitude that gives time and space to maneuver and correct for possible mistakes. 
One learns and practices the basic maneuvers, such as speed control including slow flying, coordinated turns, and combinations of those, correction for wind drift and precision approaches and landings. The latter proves that one has mastered the other maneuvers with sufficient planning and precision. The key word is planning that starts even before takeoff and continues all the time. One must be ahead of the events, observe, evaluate, decide and act accordingly. This "process of flying" is vital in all aviation, also at the higher stages. 
Warning must be given against attempts to take off in cross-, down-, gusty or strong winds and to fly in unstable or turbulent conditions or in lift.
At the beginner hill, one should not practice slow flight and stalls (except for landings) or more than gentle turns with only small diversions form the flight path. 
In the intermediate hill, poor planning, preparations and takeoff techniques may have the most serious consequences. All maneuvers should be done into the wind to avoid drifting into the hill or too far off and hence not be able to reach the landing area. Advanced maneuvers, like 360° turns, pylon flying and slow flying should be performed with extra caution and sufficient height and distance to the terrain to allow for corrections or recovery if control is lost. Turns, downwind flying and airspeed below speed for best glide angle close to the ground should be avoided. Approach should be planned in good time, and started with good height. 
After all rating requirements have been met: The student should, when flying without the direct supervision of an instructor only fly in beginner or intermediate hills with light to medium (0-3 m/s, 0-15 km/h, 0-10 mph), smooth winds. Takeoffs should only be done in approximately headwind. Lift or turbulence should be avoided, or if this is not possible, flown straight through (away from the hill) to calmer conditions in order to land in the ordinary landing area. One should also avoid flying alone. 
A beginner hill is a hill with smooth terrain, preferable snow, sand, grass or gravel, with a profile that allow for low flights with the type of paraglider in use. The takeoff and landing areas and the area between should be free of obstacles and other hazards with a good margin to either side. It should be possible to do the whole flight in close to a straight line. 
An intermediate hill is a hill where takeoff, landing area and the flight path between them is considered to be easy and with good margins to any obstacle or other safety hazards. The takeoff area should be smooth with a profile that allows for acceleration to flying speed before getting airborne (no cliff launch). The landing area should be large and easy to reach by normal maneuvering with a good margin of height. There should be established two-way communication between takeoff and landing if the landing area cannot be seen from takeoff. 
Before progressing to the next stage it is of vital importance that the student knows the theory as well as mastering all practical skills, especially airspeed control in the lower speed range and that he is able to recognize and correct for nearness to stalls. This applies to both straight flight and turns. 
To gain a minimum of experience, the student is recommended to practice a minimum of 4 flying days and 20 flights, after all rating requirements are met.

PARA PRO Stage 2, KNOWLEDGE

Requirements:

Aerodynamics: 
1. Lift: Difference in pressure created by: profile, airspeed and angle of attack. Low pressure over the wing, high pressure under the wing. Definition of: relative wind, even "laminar" airflow. 
2. Lift factors: airfoils "wing profile", area, aspect ratio, air density, airspeed, angle of attack. Internal pressure in the wing, how influenced by use of brakes. 
3. Resistance/Drag: Parasitic, induced, relation to airspeed and angle of attack. More drag when paraglider is behind the pilot on the ground than when overhead. 
4. The nature of flying: One is always dependent on continuous forward airspeed in order to keep flying, one can not stop or reverse. 
5. Load: Weight, G-force. Forces in turns, lift gradients gusts and turbulence. Opening shocks. 
6. Driving forces: 
a. On the ground: By running. 
b. In the air: The principle of the inclined plane: In flying without engine one is always going down (related to the air around you) because gravity is the driving force. 
7. Airspeed versus Groundspeed. Wind effects: Why to take off and land into the wind. Head or tail wind, wind drift and crabbing, drift and corrections in turns. 
8. Stalls: Description, dangers, recognition, avoidance and recovery. In turns, accelerated, secondary, in wind and lift gradients, downwind, in gusts and turbulence. 
9. Frontal collapses: Both asymmetrical (one wingtip)" and symmetrical (both wingtips or entire leading edge). Description, dangers, recognition, avoidance and recovery. In turns, gusts and turbulence. 
10. Spins, Spirals, Skids and Slips. Negative spins: Description, recognition, avoidance and recovery. 
11. Wing tip vortices: Turbulence behind all aircraft, how to avoid collapses therefrom. Ground effect. 
12. Control movements and principles: Airspeed control and turning. Use of brakes versus weight-shift. 
13. Airspeeds and speed polars: Minimum sink and best glide angle, relation between airspeeds in head-and tail-wind and varied wing loading. 

Micrometeorology (site conditions) and meteorology: 
1. Wind, description and creation: Airflow from high to low pressure. Created by uneven heating of the surface. "Samples: Water flow. The sea breeze". 
2. Wind measurement, wind meters, natural indicators and signs:
a. Velocity: Knots, MPH or m/s. 
b. Directions: Compass and quadrant (head or up, tail or down, crosswind). 
3. The wind force: Increases proportionally with the square of the wind velocity increase. Effects, dangers. 
4. Wind gradient: Effect, dangers, corrections. 
5. Uneven wind/gusts, turbulence and lift: Causes, signs, dangers. 
a. Mechanical turbulence: Behind or lee of obstructions, trees, buildings, hills. 
b. Thermal turbulence: Instability, uneven heating, dangers, recognition. 
c. Wind shifts: Gusts and dangers. 
d. Wind shears: Descriptions, dangers. 
6. Local conditions: Terrain effects, valleys, around obstructions and corners. 
7. Weather: Creation, heat and pressure differences, stability/ instability, circulation, wind systems. 
8. Sea breeze: Creation, effects. 
9. Waves: Rotors. Behind mountains, signs and dangers. 
10. Ridge effects: Descriptions, kinds, gradients, dangers. 
11. Thermals: Description, instability, turbulence, signs. 
12. Clouds: Cumulus, cumulonimbus, rotor clouds, dangers. 
13. Air masses and Fronts: Cold fronts, warm fronts, signs and conditions. 
14. Weather reports and evaluation: 
a. Weather reports: Signs, interpretation. 
b. Reading wind: direction and force, at takeoff and landing, along the flight path, indicators. 
c. Recognition of safe and dangerous conditions. 

1. Construction and Terminology: Materials and parts. 
2. Airworthiness standards and requirements: Design and certification, purpose and need. Design maximum loads, maneuvering limitations, stability, stall characteristics, maneuverability, speed range, pilot weight and rating. 
3. Handling: Control response. Roll, pitch and yaw coupling. Stability, slow flight and stalls, B-lining, takeoff and landing characteristics. Effect of accelerators or speed systems. 
4. Maintenance: Daily and periodical inspection and care, qualified tuning and repairs. 
5. Selection of gliders: Rating and experience, type of flying, performance, handling and weight range. Use and ambitions. Appropriate model rating for students: Standard rating (not Performance or Competition rating). 
6. Selection of harnesses: Types of harnesses, weight-shift or classic, use of cross-bracing. Rating and experience. 
7. Performance: Minimum sink, maximum glide, maximum speed, penetration, turning capacity. 
8. Safety equipment: Helmet, boots, gloves, clothing. Dorsal protection and hip protection. Airbags. 

1. Physical factors: Fitness, strength, exhaustion. Drugs and alcohol. Vertigo, hyperventilation. 
2. Psychological factors: Anxiety and fear of height. Recognition of own ability and limitations versus natural and equipment limitations. Confidence versus overconfidence (The Icarus syndrome). Group and personal pressures and approval, saying no, the walk down. Self discipline. 
3. The learning process and environment: The training system, objectives, description, safety, motivation, individual progress. 
4. Conduct/ Airmanship: 
a. The nature of flying: One is always dependent on continuous forward airspeed in order to keep flying, one can not stop or reverse. 
b. The process of flying: Insight, continuous evaluations, decisions, actions. With regard to the nature of flying, being ahead. 
c. The commando principle: The necessity of completing every started flight. The danger of panic. 

1. Government or other official authorities. 
a. Airspace and Air traffic: Controlled and uncontrolled airspace and airports, VFR/IFR traffic and rules, right of way rules. 
b. Other rules. 
2. National Paragliding Association. 
3. School and training. 
4. Local and sites. 
5. Code of good practice. 
6. Right of way rules. 

1. Instructional and safety recommendations. 
2. Flight planning: The process of flying: Information/observation, evaluation, decisions and execution. Making a flight plan. 
3. Preparations: Standard routines and checks, double checks of critical factors. 
4. Flying exercises: The practical skill requirements: Description, intention, procedures, execution, errors and dangers. 
5. Critical, dangerous and emergency situations: Their causes, avoidance, recognition, corrections. Applicable training methods "simulations". 

a. Poor preparation: Equipment failures and malfunctions. 
b. Ground handling in gusts and strong winds: Loss of control. Being dragged, avoidance, prevention. 
c. Stalls: Level flight, in turns, low, high, in takeoff, in gradient, in gusts, in turbulence, in "unexpected" lift, downwind, downwind turns in gradient. 
d. Poor takeoff techniques: Poor control of paraglider, poor airspeed and directional control. Over-control, turn back to hill. Getting into harness, release of brakes to accomplish same. 
e. Wind conditions: Wind strength, crosswind, gusts and turbulence, unexpected lift, drift into hill, wind gradient. 
f. Crashing/ Emergency landings: Avoidance, preparations. 
g. Takeoffs above 1500m: Air density decreases. True airspeed increases. 
h. Critical maneuvers: Flying close to terrain and obstructions, stalls and slow flight, 360? turns, spins, spiral dives, pylon flying. Takeoff in wind without assistance, particularly near cliffs. 
i. Unfamiliarity: With sites, conditions, paraglider or harness, maneuver or tasks. 
j. Physical and Physiological factors: Stress, pressure, exhaustion, fear, drugs and alcohol. 
k. Poor airmanship: Overestimating own ability and/or underestimating sites, conditions, equipment or task. 
l. Vertigo: Flying with reduced visibility. 
m. Combinations: Of two or more of the above multiplies the risk of accidents. 
n. Emergency maneuver: Use of parachutes, prevention of down-planing of paraglider after parachute deployment. Landings in water, trees, rough terrain, obstructed areas, electrical wires. 
o. Accidents: Assistance and reports. 
First Aid: In accordance with appropriate authority's recommendations.

PARA PRO Stage 2, PRACTICAL SKILLS

1. Transport, care and maintenance of paraglider and equipment. Accordion vs. rolled fold up. Proper stowing of lines and risers. 
2. Pre and post flight routines: Laying out, making a horseshoe, "building a wall", adjustments, preflight checks, line and carabiner control, harness control, attachment of cross-bracing and speed system. Packing up. 
3. Takeoff position and final check: Position of risers and toggles. Body and arm position. Final check.: Of carabiners and cross-bracing, conditions, clear area. 
4. Takeoff exercises: The paraglider to flying position: Determined, correct running to get the paraglider up. Checking the paraglider visually. Letting go of front risers. Correcting problems. Continue running, smooth acceleration, no jumping into harness. 
5. Running with paraglider: Controlling position of paraglider and angle of attack and roll, on flat ground and on a slope. 
6. Stalling and stopping a run: On flat ground and on a slope. Correct landing technique. Not flaring too soon. 
7. Flight planning: Evaluating site and conditions. Decisions, giving a flight plan. 
8. Takeoff: Takeoff position. Smooth acceleration and lift off, with correct airspeed and good directional control. 
9. Speed control: Best glide angle speed, no tendency of slow flight or stall. 
10. Directional control: Maintaining heading, smooth course corrections, avoidance of oscillations. 
11. Shallow turns: Coordinated entry and recovery, small diversions from course. 
12. Landings: Directly into wind. 


1. Planning: Insight, evaluation of site and conditions, decisions, giving a flight plan. 
2. Preflight routines: Repetition of Part 1, spreading, adjustment, preflight checks. 
3. Takeoffs: Start position, final check, smooth acceleration, lift off at correct speed, good speed and directional control. 
4. Speed control maneuvers: Best glide angle and minimum sink speed. 
5. Turns: 90?-180?, gentle to medium bank, left and right, coordinated. 
6. Slow flight: Recognition and recovery "at safe altitudes". 
7. Ground reference maneuvers: Figure 8-turns and rectangular patterns, correcting for wind-drift. 
8. Traffic rules: Maneuvering according to other traffic. 
9. Landing patterns: Following planned procedure. Approach with downwind, base and final legs. Figure 8-turns. Control of gradient. 
10. Turning and landing only by the use of the rear risers "simulation of brake-line failure". 
11. Precision approaches and landings: Safe and standing inside an area preset by the instructor. Slow flight and mushing is not allowed.

PARA PRO Stage 2, EXPERIENCE

1. A minimum of 6 flying days. 
2. A minimum of 30 successful flights, of which at least 10 are altitude gliding flights.

PARA PRO Stage 2, AIRMANSHIP

The instructor should be convinced that the student is able to take care of his own and others' safety, while flying low or altitude gliding within the instructional and safety recommendations given.

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