دوشنبه 17 آذر 1393
نویسنده: parapink5 learning training paragliding |
Basic soaring is soaring in easy ridge or thermal conditions, without gusts or turbulence, well clear of the terrain, obstacles and other traffic.
The objectives of this stage are to introduce the student to soaring flight
and to make him able to practice and enjoy soaring within safe limitations.
He should also be qualified to become a pilot, with the ability to operate
alone within safe limitations and to take the responsibility for his further
Soaring has many stages in itself, with increasing difficulty, from easy conditions and maneuvers with a large safety margin, to marginal or extreme conditions with minimal margins. When a pilot "masters the art", it seems quite simple and in a sense it is. This, however, should not mislead anyone into believing that it is easily mastered. Lack of knowledge, misjudgment, wrong maneuvering, ignorance or gambling may easily end up in a serious accident.
One will in this stage get more time to practice in the air and the flying can get automated. There is however less room for mistakes and errors. Therefore careful planned progression is very important. Exercises should in the beginning be simple and with large margins. Soaring requires careful preparation, good planning and ability to do precise and fast maneuvering. Especially important is good launch technique and control in the lower part of the speed range. One must be able to fly coordinated turns with a minimum loss of altitude, often in marginal conditions close to the ridge while calculating drift and keeping constant lookout for other traffic and maneuvering according to traffic rules. One must also be able to recognize all kinds of collapses and to execute prompt and correct recovery at the first signs, with a minimum loss of height and control.
To become a pilot: One should now also be free to develop further, and one has still a lot to learn in order to be able to use the possibilities there is. One will be given possibilities that will demand very good "airmanship" including self discipline and carefulness. It can often be necessary not to fly or to fly with large margins. The point is that one must show that one is able to take responsibility and that one knows where one’s own as well as others’ limits are, and when further instruction is necessary.
An instructor will no longer be responsible. This puts large demands on one’s personality.
Warning must be given against too fast a progression, overconfidence, inattention, ignorance, gambling, misjudgment and lack of skills. One will operate in stronger winds with smaller margins than on previous stages. Even before takeoff accidents can happen. Poor takeoff techniques, lack of control and correction of paraglider while running, or takeoff without a "perfect" paraglider can have serious consequences. One should have qualified assistance when launching in strong or gusty winds. Further one should be very careful with the conditions, which can change suddenly. Strong wind and turbulence may easily lead one to the lee side, or to drift in over dangerous/ unknown terrain. One should also avoid flying alone.
Warning must also be given against the so called "intermediate syndrome" or "Icarus syndrome", meaning that it is easy to believe that one now knows and masters everything, and that neither oneself or the equipment has limitations. It is well known that Icarus was the first who killed himself because of this attitude.
The student (before stage 3 is attained) should only fly: with instructor present, in easy smooth conditions with a wide lift band or in smooth thermal conditions. This will allow him to maneuver with a good margin to other traffic and the terrain. He should be careful not to turn before he is established in flying position with good control of airspeed and direction. He should not try to return to a lift band he has flown out of. Ridge soaring in marginal lift, in strong wind (above 7 m/s, 25 km/h, 15 mph), in turbulence, cliff launches, crosswind launches, top landings or landings into the hill (hillside landings) are also not allowed.
After all rating requirements have been met one can fly freely within the safety limitations, as long as a higher stage is not required by other rules or regulation. One will have the responsibility to seek further instruction when necessary. It is recommended in the beginning to use the rules for students (see above) as a guidance for safe flying.
Only experienced pilots should fly at advanced sites close to the ridge, in marginal, strong or turbulent conditions or in "heavy traffic".
Before progressing to higher stages, the pilot should have a variety of experience from different sites and conditions. The process of flying should be automated, so that reactions are fast and correct in the different situations/exercises one has to master. It is recommended to fly a minimum of 10 hours and 20 flights.
1. Repetition of stage 2 theory.
2. Stalls and collapses : In takeoff, in gusts and turbulence. In lift gradients. Turning in lift gradients. In wind gradient. Turning in wind gradient (downwind). Secondary stalls.
3. Speed polars : Performance. Evaluation of glide angle and minimum sink with corresponding airspeeds: In head and tail wind, in lift and sink. With regards to wing loading, air density, turns.
4. Wind effects :Wind-drift and crabbing, drift and corrections in turns. Head or tail wind, penetration.
5. Wing tip vortices : Behind other gliders, airplanes, helicopters.
1. Review: Stage 2 maneuvers mastered.
2. Planning: The process of flying, giving a flight plan.
3. Preparations: Spreading out, attachment of harness, adjustments, preflight checks.
4. Ground handling: Control, assistance, correct procedures.
5. Takeoffs in wind: With assistance, procedures, instructions, Start position. Final checks. Speed and direction. Flying position.
6. Minimum sink maneuvers: Speed control, coordinated turns left and right, minimum loss of height, without any sign of stall.
7. Wind corrections exercises/ Maneuvering in lift bands: Figure 8 maneuvering, corrections for wind drift, turns and reversing direction. Maneuvering according to terrain and other traffic, keeping a good lookout.
8. 360 degree turns: Ordinary speed and on minimum sink, right and left, shallow to medium bank, without any sign of stalls. "Safe height and distance to terrain."
9. Stalling: From minimum sink speed and flight straight ahead. "Safe altitude and distance." To be attempted for first time only with instructor, with radio communications, with reserve parachute present, and over water. B-line stalls: force required to enter, avoidance of parachutal stall during recovery by quick let-up of risers.
10. Frontal collapses: 2-3 cells on one side and on both sides. "Safe altitude and distance." Progression from pulling on 1 A-line to 2, 3, 4. Use of counter-steering with weight shift. Pumping out folds.
11. Soaring: Entering, turning and maneuvering in lift, corrections and gradient, without any signs of stalls.
Precision approaches and landings: Safe and inside an area decided by the instructor.
1. A minimum of 60 successful flights and a total of 5 flying hours.
2. Flights from 5 different sites, of which 3 are inland.
3. Minimum 3 flights and a total of 1 hour of flying in lift.
The instructor should be convinced that the student is able to take care of his own and others' safety within applicable rules and regulations, recommendations and code of good practice, while operating alone.