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The Paraglider - The online paragliding beginner courses - training paragliding : PARA PRO, STAGE 3
The Paraglider - The online paragliding beginner courses

training paragliding : PARA PRO, STAGE 3

دوشنبه 17 آذر 1393

نویسنده: parapink5 learning training paragliding |

PARA PRO, STAGE 3

BASIC SOARING (GREEN)

paragliding
Soaring near the slope

Basic soaring is soaring in easy ridge or thermal conditions, without gusts or turbulence, well clear of the terrain, obstacles and other traffic.

INSTRUCTIONAL AND SAFETY RECOMMENDATIONS

The objectives of this stage are to introduce the student to soaring flight and to make him able to practice and enjoy soaring within safe limitations. He should also be qualified to become a pilot, with the ability to operate alone within safe limitations and to take the responsibility for his further progression.
Soaring has many stages in itself, with increasing difficulty, from easy conditions and maneuvers with a large safety margin, to marginal or extreme conditions with minimal margins. When a pilot "masters the art", it seems quite simple and in a sense it is. This, however, should not mislead anyone into believing that it is easily mastered. Lack of knowledge, misjudgment, wrong maneuvering, ignorance or gambling may easily end up in a serious accident.
One will in this stage get more time to practice in the air and the flying can get automated. There is however less room for mistakes and errors. Therefore careful planned progression is very important. Exercises should in the beginning be simple and with large margins. Soaring requires careful preparation, good planning and ability to do precise and fast maneuvering. Especially important is good launch technique and control in the lower part of the speed range. One must be able to fly coordinated turns with a minimum loss of altitude, often in marginal conditions close to the ridge while calculating drift and keeping constant lookout for other traffic and maneuvering according to traffic rules. One must also be able to recognize all kinds of collapses and to execute prompt and correct recovery at the first signs, with a minimum loss of height and control.
To become a pilot: One should now also be free to develop further, and one has still a lot to learn in order to be able to use the possibilities there is. One will be given possibilities that will demand very good "airmanship" including self discipline and carefulness. It can often be necessary not to fly or to fly with large margins. The point is that one must show that one is able to take responsibility and that one knows where one’s own as well as others’ limits are, and when further instruction is necessary.
An instructor will no longer be responsible. This puts large demands on one’s personality.
Warning must be given against too fast a progression, overconfidence, inattention, ignorance, gambling, misjudgment and lack of skills. One will operate in stronger winds with smaller margins than on previous stages. Even before takeoff accidents can happen. Poor takeoff techniques, lack of control and correction of paraglider while running, or takeoff without a "perfect" paraglider can have serious consequences. One should have qualified assistance when launching in strong or gusty winds. Further one should be very careful with the conditions, which can change suddenly. Strong wind and turbulence may easily lead one to the lee side, or to drift in over dangerous/ unknown terrain. One should also avoid flying alone.
Warning must also be given against the so called "intermediate syndrome" or "Icarus syndrome", meaning that it is easy to believe that one now knows and masters everything, and that neither oneself or the equipment has limitations. It is well known that Icarus was the first who killed himself because of this attitude.
The student (before stage 3 is attained) should only fly: with instructor present, in easy smooth conditions with a wide lift band or in smooth thermal conditions. This will allow him to maneuver with a good margin to other traffic and the terrain. He should be careful not to turn before he is established in flying position with good control of airspeed and direction. He should not try to return to a lift band he has flown out of. Ridge soaring in marginal lift, in strong wind (above 7 m/s, 25 km/h, 15 mph), in turbulence, cliff launches, crosswind launches, top landings or landings into the hill (hillside landings) are also not allowed.
After all rating requirements have been met one can fly freely within the safety limitations, as long as a higher stage is not required by other rules or regulation. One will have the responsibility to seek further instruction when necessary. It is recommended in the beginning to use the rules for students (see above) as a guidance for safe flying.
Only experienced pilots should fly at advanced sites close to the ridge, in marginal, strong or turbulent conditions or in "heavy traffic".
Before progressing to higher stages, the pilot should have a variety of experience from different sites and conditions. The process of flying should be automated, so that reactions are fast and correct in the different situations/exercises one has to master. It is recommended to fly a minimum of 10 hours and 20 flights.

PARA PRO Stage 3, KNOWLEDGE

Requirements:
Aerodynamics:
1. Repetition of stage 2 theory.
2. Stalls and collapses : In takeoff, in gusts and turbulence. In lift gradients. Turning in lift gradients. In wind gradient. Turning in wind gradient (downwind). Secondary stalls.
3. Speed polars : Performance. Evaluation of glide angle and minimum sink with corresponding airspeeds: In head and tail wind, in lift and sink. With regards to wing loading, air density, turns.
4. Wind effects  :Wind-drift and crabbing, drift and corrections in turns. Head or tail wind, penetration.
5. Wing tip vortices : Behind other gliders, airplanes, helicopters.


Meteorology: 

1. Repetition of stage 2 theory.
2. The wind force: Increases proportionally with the square of the wind velocity increase. Effects and dangers. On the ground, at takeoff, in the air, at the landing.
3. Ridge lift:
a. Factors
: Shape and gradient of slope, wind direction and velocity.
b. Components: Horizontal and vertical, gradients, acceleration, strongest lift, strongest head wind.
c. Dangerous conditions and areas: Lee-side, turbulence, rotors, strong gradients and winds. Winds that increase quickly in speed.
d. Safe and good conditions: Up and in front of the ridge.
4. Waves:
a. Factors: Terrain, wind direction and velocity.
b. Signs: High winds, lenticular clouds, rotor clouds.
c. Dangers: Rotors, penetration, strong lift, high altitudes, hypoxia, cold.
5. Thermals:
a. Factors: Instability, lapse rates, terrain, sunshine and heating.
b. Signs: Large temperature drop with altitude, wind shifts, lulls and gusts, cumulus clouds.
c. Dangers: Gusts and turbulence, strong lift gradients, pitch ups and downs.
d. Safe and good conditions: Large thermals, smooth and moderate gradient, light to medium winds.
6. Frontal lift: Cold front description.
a. Factors: Air masses, from high to low pressures, instability.
b. Signs: Cumulus clouds, moving clouds, squall lines, wind-shift, temperature rise/fall.
c. Dangers: High winds, wind shifts and gusts, strong lift, turbulence.
7. Clouds: Cumulus, cumulonimbus, cap clouds, rotor clouds, stratus clouds, lenticular clouds.
8. Weather reports: Current meteorological forecasts and maps. Where to obtain, interpretations.
9. Weather signs: Reading the weather on the ground and in the air:
a. Measuring: Of the wind, pressure and stability.
b. Clouds: Associated weather and conditions.
c. Wind: Reading the wind, wind indicators.

Paragliders and equipment: 

1. Repetition of stage 2 theory.
2. Design Factors: Airworthiness, performance, handling.
3. Maintenance: Daily and periodical inspections and care, repairs.
4. Tuning: For maximum performance in the prevailing conditions.
5. Instruments: Variometers, altimeters, airspeed indicators.
6. Clothes and equipment: For endurance, high altitude and cold.
7. Selection of paraglider: Appropriate model rating for pilots at this level: Standard rating (not Performance or Competition rating).

Airmen: 
1. Repetition of stage 2 theory.
2. Pilot in command: Airmanship, traits, abilities, responsibilities, command and control. Mastering the nature and process of flying.
3. Physical factors: Vertigo, hypoxia, cold, exhaustion.

Rules and regulations: 
1. Repetition of stage 2 theory.
2. The airspace and other traffic in the air:
a. Controlled airspace and airports: Control zones, terminal areas, airways, ATC, VFR/IFR traffic patterns, rules of operation, VFR rules for minimum visibility and distances from clouds.
b. Uncontrolled airspace and airports: Information zones and services, VFR/IFR traffic patterns, rules of operation, VFR rules for minimum visibility and distances from clouds.
c. Other airspace: Restricted, dangerous and prohibited areas.
3. Information sources: ICAO maps, publications, manuals, NOTAMs. Where to obtain. Air Traffic Control, information service, local airports and clubs, schools.
4. Right of way rules for paragliders and hang gliders: General, ridge soaring, thermal soaring.
5. Other rules and regulations, as applicable: Government, National Paragliding Association.
6. Code of good practice.

Practical flying and safety: 
1. Repetition of stage 2 theory.
2. Instructional and safety recommendations.
3. Preparations: Standard routines and checks, double checks of critical factors.
4. Flying exercises: The Practical skill requirements: Description, intention, procedures, execution, errors and dangers.
5. Critical, dangerous and emergency situations: Their causes, avoidance, recognition, corrections. Applicable training methods (simulations).

a. Ground handling in gusts and high winds. Practice of reverse inflation, use of crossed-hands control or not. The turn from reverse to forward position, when and how. Deflation of paraglider when necessary, avoidance of being dragged.
b. Poor takeoff techniques: Wrong use of or wrong commands to assistants. Poor control off the paraglider. Poor airspeed and directional control, collapses, loss of control, turning back to ridge. Getting into harness.
c. Stalls: In gusts, turbulence, in lift gradient, close to the terrain, in turn.
d. Conditions: Marginal lift, strong winds, gusts, turbulence, rotors.
e. Unusual situations: Turbulence, aerobatics, flying close to clouds.
f. Critical maneuvers: 360? turns, returning to lift band, flying close to the terrain, top landings, hillside landings, stalling in turns. Stopping a negative spin. Recovery from major collapses "symmetrical or asymmetrical", B-line stalls. Stopping a spiral dive.
g. Unfamiliarity: With sites, conditions, paraglider or harness, maneuvers or tasks.
h. Physical and Physiological factors: Stress, pressure, exhaustion, fear, drugs and alcohol.
i. Poor airmanship: Overestimating own ability, and/or underestimating sites and conditions.
j. Vertigo: Flying with reduced visibility.
k. Combinations: Of two or more of the above multiplies the risk of accidents.
l. Emergency maneuvers: Use of parachutes. Landings in water, trees, rough terrain, obstructed areas, electrical wires.
m. Accidents: Assistance and reports.
First Aid:
Repetition of stage 2 theory.

PARA PRO Stage 3, PRACTICAL SKILLS

Requirements:
1. Review: Stage 2 maneuvers mastered.
2. Planning: The process of flying, giving a flight plan.
3. Preparations: Spreading out, attachment of harness, adjustments, preflight checks.
4. Ground handling: Control, assistance, correct procedures.
5. Takeoffs in wind: With assistance, procedures, instructions, Start position. Final checks. Speed and direction. Flying position.
6. Minimum sink maneuvers: Speed control, coordinated turns left and right, minimum loss of height, without any sign of stall.
7. Wind corrections exercises/ Maneuvering in lift bands: Figure 8 maneuvering, corrections for wind drift, turns and reversing direction. Maneuvering according to terrain and other traffic, keeping a good lookout.
8. 360 degree turns: Ordinary speed and on minimum sink, right and left, shallow to medium bank, without any sign of stalls. "Safe height and distance to terrain."
9. Stalling: From minimum sink speed and flight straight ahead. "Safe altitude and distance." To be attempted for first time only with instructor, with radio communications, with reserve parachute present, and over water. B-line stalls: force required to enter, avoidance of parachutal stall during recovery by quick let-up of risers.
10. Frontal collapses: 2-3 cells on one side and on both sides. "Safe altitude and distance." Progression from pulling on 1 A-line to 2, 3, 4. Use of counter-steering with weight shift. Pumping out folds.
11. Soaring: Entering, turning and maneuvering in lift, corrections and gradient, without any signs of stalls.
Precision approaches and landings: Safe and inside an area decided by the instructor.

PARA PRO Stage 3, EXPERIENCE

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 Requirements:
1. A minimum of 60 successful flights and a total of 5 flying hours.
2. Flights from 5 different sites, of which 3 are inland.
3. Minimum 3 flights and a total of 1 hour of flying in lift.

PARA PRO Stage 3, AIRMANSHIP

 Requirements: 
The instructor should be convinced that the student is able to take care of his own and others' safety within applicable rules and regulations, recommendations and code of good practice, while operating alone.     

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