Hands off the brakes during ground control.
Advanced soaring is flying in demanding lift, such as marginal, strong
and/or turbulent thermal or wave conditions. INSTRUCTIONAL AND SAFETY RECOMMENDATIONS:
The objective of this stage is to make sure the pilot can safely practice
advanced soaring, also under pressure as in displays, demonstrations and
This stage has turbulence and small margins as key words. One must be
prepared to be forced to operate close to the safe operating limitations for
the both the equipment and oneself. Even while one certainly should give
both equipment and oneself good safety margins, one must be prepared for the
possibility that those margins may be passed. A thorough knowledge of
emergency procedures, such as recovery from asymmetric and symmetric
collapses, stalls, spins, spirals, and surges, as well as use of parachute,
is very important. One must have a thorough knowledge of performance curves
and correct flying speeds (speed polars), use of accelerator (speed system),
design limitations and load factors.
Advanced soaring requires the ability of fast and accurate evaluations of
conditions and situations combined with fast and precise maneuvering. There
will be situations with little time for balanced decisions and wrong
reactions. One must be prepared by careful planning and one always must be
ahead of the situation, so that in critical situations one gives the right
reaction without wasting time. One must have highly developed skills and a
thorough knowledge in order to gain maximum performance. One must, often
close to the terrain and in turbulent conditions, master all types of turns
combined with low speeds, and also keep a close watch of terrain and other
Extreme conditions are warned against, because of the strong forces that may
be present. Regardless of pilot skill and experience one may easily lose
control. Structural (equipment) failures can also happen. One must never
overestimate oneself or the equipment. If one meets strong turbulence, one
must not panic and try to avoid it by sharp turns or high speeds, since this
increases the possibilities for loss of control (or major collapses).
Correct maneuvering in strong turbulence is moderate speeds and flight
straight ahead or shallow banks if necessary.
Other dangers are stalling or frontal collapse, and loss of control close to
the terrain. If this happens, the correct reactions are vital. That is, in
case of a stall first reduce the angle of attack by raising one’s arms,
control the ensuing surge of the canopy, then wait for speed to maneuver and
then avoid collision. In case of a frontal collapse, this is to increase
angle of attack and if necessary counter any tendency to turns and then
avoid collision. One should also avoid flying alone.
Students are under no circumstance allowed to practice advanced soaring.
Pilots must have a license for this stage in order to fly advanced soaring
in displays, demonstrations or competitions or else where this stage is
Before progressing to the next stage one must be able to, with a great deal
of accuracy, evaluate conditions to be acceptable in relation to safety. One
should also show that one is able to find and use all kinds of lift.
Repetition from stage 3, especially
a. Relative to maneuvering and speed in turbulence, turns and pulling out of
b. Correct maneuvering speeds in turbulence. Stability. Speed polars.
a. When, how and where. Stability versus instability in the air. Lapse rate.
b. Best thermal areas. Time of day and of year.
c. Types of thermals, dangerous thermal conditions, dry thermals.
d. Signs: Clouds, cumulus, cumulonimbus. Squall lines.
2. Wave conditions: waves, turbulence, high altitudes.
3. Dangerous conditions: Strong wind. Clouds, cumulonimbus, severe
Paraglider and equipment:
1. Structural limitations: loads, speeds, attitudes, aerobatics. Structural
2. Stability: profile, wing torsion, pendulum stability, recovery after
stalls or major collapses.
3. Selection of paraglider: Appropriate model rating for advanced soaring
pilots: Standard rating, or Performance rating (but not Competition rating).
1. Stage 3 maneuvers, mastered, reviewed if necessary.
2. Planning: The process of flying, giving a flight plan.
3. 360? turns, shallow to medium bank, left and right.
4. 360? turns, steep, left and right.
5. 360? turns, at minimum sink "flat", left and right.
6. Ridge soaring: Launching and soaring.
7. Thermal soaring: Launching, locating, entering and climbing.
8. Marginal lift: Launching and soaring.
9. Gusts and turbulence: Launching and soaring.
10. Maneuvering according to the traffic rules.
1. Same as for stage 3, easy soaring, plus:
2. A total of minimum 10 flying hours.
3. A total of minimum 2 hours of thermal soaring.
4. A total of minimum 2 hours of ridge soaring.
The pilot should be considered to be able to take care of his/her own and
others’ safety while flying at this stage, also during displays,
demonstrations and competitions and anywhere else this stage in required.