دوشنبه 17 آذر 1393
نویسنده: parapink5 learning training paragliding |
Cross Country flying is to use rising air currents (soaring) to fly away
from (and maybe return to) the local flying site.
INSTRUCTIONAL AND SAFETY RECOMMENDATIONS:
The objective of this stage is to enable the pilot to fly cross country safely, also under pressure as in demonstrations, displays and competitions.
This stage has nearly unlimited possibilities, from short and easy flights, to really demanding long distance flights, where if the conditions permit, the pilot's ability, as well as his/her determination, will set the limits. It is here that the pilot's ability, that is his knowledge, skill, experience and airmanship, is put to the ultimate test.
One must be able to plan, administer and perform each flight within safe limitations, while one must stress oneself and the equipment to the same limitations to be able to go really far. One must have a thorough knowledge of aerodynamics and meteorology as well as air traffic rules and the airspace. In accordance with the planned flight, and existing and possible conditions, one must choose correct equipment like clothes, aids and emergency equipment, as well as organizing necessary transport and pick up, radio communications and procedures for use in an emergency situation such as landing and getting injured in deserted and difficult terrain.
Cross country flying requires the ability to find all types of lift, as well as correct maneuvering in lift and sink areas. One must be able to judge the terrain and conditions so as not to land where it is prohibited, or where one may add injuries to oneself or others, or in areas that are remote. One must be able to very quickly pick out the best landing fields if one has to go down, and if necessary set up a precision approach to a small landing field with a short field landing over possible barriers. This is because any accident may have the most serious consequences.
Warning must be given against cross country flying into remote and deserted areas, over areas with no possibilities for emergency landings and over water. One must always make sure that someone knows where one intends to fly, and that a search is activated if found necessary. If there is any possibility for a landing in remote and deserted areas one should bring an emergency pack according to the conditions. One should also avoid flying alone.
Students are under no circumstance allowed to fly cross country.
Pilots must have a license for this stage in order to fly cross country in displays, demonstrations or competitions or anywhere else this stage is required.
1. Planning: Collecting information on weather, terrain, sites, airspace, air traffic and hazards. Use of map and other publications, air traffic and weather service.
2. Weather service: Where and how to get weather information.
3. Interpreting weather reports: Meteorological reports and maps.
4. Interpreting weather: Signs, recognition of acceptable and dangerous conditions.
5. Airspace and air traffic:
a. Controlled airspace: Air corridors, terminal areas, control zones and airports.
b. Uncontrolled airspace: Air transport and other airfields. Danger, restricted, prohibited and alert areas.
c. Military traffic: Training areas, graphing from the air.
d. Governmental publications: Sectional charts, Notam, ICAO maps.
6. Use of maps:
a. Planning of flights: Dangerous/ deserted areas, alternative routes, landing areas, communication and retrieval.
7. Equipment: For altitude and low temperatures, emergency and first aid equipment, survival equipment, warning and communication equipment.
8. Selection of paraglider model: Appropriate model rating for cross-country pilots: Standard rating or Performance rating. For advanced cross-country pilots willing to possibly compromise handling or safety standards for additional performance: Competition rating.
9. Standard procedures: Signals, retrieval.
10. Emergency procedures: Warning, search after missing pilots.
1. Review: Maneuvers from previous stages mastered.
2. Planning: Evaluations and decisions, giving a flight plan.
3. Soaring: Search for and use of all kinds of lift. Flying in lift and sink, head and tail wind with correct speed.
4. Cliff-launch in light to moderate wind. To be avoided due to risk of collapses.
5. Cliff-launch in strong wind: Not to be attempted in a paraglider, only in a hang glider, and then only with assistance.
6. Crosswind-launch: Wind maximum 45 degrees off launch direction. Crosswind component less than 2 m/s, 7 km/h, 5 mph.
7. Outlandings: Precision approach to unknown landing area: Selection of landing field, control of speed and glide angle.
Same as for stage 4, plus.
1. A total of 20 flying hours.
2. A total of 5 cross country flights in various lift (ridge soaring and flying along the same ridge, only, is not approved).
The pilot should be able to take care of his own and others’ safety during cross country flying, also during displays, demonstrations and competitions and anywhere else this stage in required.
Suggested visual markings for the PARA PRO system:
The students/pilots should have visual markings that shows the stage they are at. The following are suggested:
A HELMET BADGE, with color trim, matching the color of the stage.